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Title: Pleistocene genetic connectivity in a widespread, open-habitat-adapted mosquito in the Indo-Oriental region
Authors: Magdalena Zarowiecki
Catherine Walton
Elizabeth Torres
Erica Mcalister
Pe Than Htun
Chalao Sumrandee
Tho Sochanta
Trung Ho Dinh
Lee Ching Ng
Yvonne Marie Linton
The Natural History Museum, London
University of Manchester
Formerly of the Research Institute of Tropical Medicine (RITM)
Medical Entomology Research Division
Mahidol University
National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control
National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology Hanoi
National Environment Agency, Singapore
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Environmental Science
Issue Date: 1-Jul-2011
Citation: Journal of Biogeography. Vol.38, No.7 (2011), 1422-1432
Abstract: Aim The environmental effect of Pleistocene climatic change in the Indo-Oriental region has resulted in allopatric fragmentation and the generation of diversity in forest-associated species. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which Pleistocene climatic change has resulted in the fragmentation and speciation of an open-habitat-adapted mosquito, Anopheles vagus s.l., across its range. Location Anopheles vagus s.l. was sampled across the Indo-Oriental region. Methods We generated 116 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 121 nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) DNA sequences from 18 populations. Relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes were reconstructed using minimum spanning networks, and population structure was examined using analyses of molecular variance. The population history, including lineage divergence times, population expansion and gene flow, was inferred using beast and the isolation with migration (IM) model. Results There was no evidence to support the presence of the endemic Philippines species, A. limosus; instead, Philippine populations were closely related to, and derived from, A. vagus on the eastern Southeast Asian mainland. The most distinct populations were those from Java and East Timor, which differed from all other populations by all individuals having a 4-bp insertion in the ITS2 sequence. The corresponding mitochondrial haplotypes had an estimated divergence time of 2.6Ma [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-3.6Ma]. Haplotype networks and analysis of molecular variance for COI supported western (Sri Lanka, India and Myanmar) and eastern (Thailand, Singapore, Cambodia, Vietnam and the Philippines) population groupings. This grouping structure results from the divergence of an eastern and a western mitochondrial lineage, estimated to have occurred 0.37Ma (95% CI 0.26-0.55Ma). Subsequent migration from the east to the west (0.16Ma) is inferred to have created an admixture zone in Myanmar and Thailand. Main conclusions With the possible exception of populations from Java and East Timor, A. vagus appears to be one widespread genetically diverse taxon across its extensive range. The abundance of grassland during long interglacial periods may have facilitated population connectivity and range expansion across the Oriental and western Australasian regions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
ISSN: 13652699
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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