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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.li.mahidol.ac.th/dspace/handle/123456789/11994
Title: Coma in fatal adult human malaria is not caused by cerebral oedema
Authors: Isabelle M. Medana
Nicholas Pj Day
Navakanit Sachanonta
Nguyen Th Mai
Arjen M. Dondorp
Emsri Pongponratn
Tran T. Hien
Nicholas J. White
Gareth Dh Turner
University of Oxford
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
Mahidol University
UCL
Keywords: Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine
Issue Date: 21-Sep-2011
Citation: Malaria Journal. Vol.10, (2011)
Abstract: Background: The role of brain oedema in the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria is controversial. Coma associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is multifactorial, but associated with histological evidence of parasitized erythrocyte sequestration and resultant microvascular congestion in cerebral vessels. To determine whether these changes cause breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and resultant perivascular or parenchymal cerebral oedema, histology, immunohistochemistry and image analysis were used to define the prevalence of histological patterns of oedema and the expression of specific molecular pathways involved in water balance in the brain in adults with fatal falciparum malaria. Methods. The brains of 20 adult Vietnamese patients who died of severe malaria were examined for evidence of disrupted vascular integrity. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis was performed on brainstem sections for activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 and expression of the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channel protein. Fibrinogen immunostaining was assessed as evidence of blood-brain barrier leakage and perivascular oedema formation. Correlations were performed with clinical, biochemical and neuropathological parameters of severe malaria infection. Results: The presence of oedema, plasma protein leakage and evidence of VEGF signalling were heterogeneous in fatal falciparum malaria and did not correlate with pre-mortem coma. Differences in vascular integrity were observed between brain regions with the greatest prevalence of disruption in the brainstem, compared to the cortex or midbrain. There was a statistically non-significant trend towards higher AQP4 staining in the brainstem of cases that presented with coma (P =.02). Conclusions: Histological evidence of cerebral oedema or immunohistochemical evidence of localised loss of vascular integrity did not correlate with the occurrence of pre-mortem coma in adults with fatal falciparum malaria. Enhanced expression of AQP4 water channels in the brainstem may, therefore, reflect a mix of both neuropathological or attempted neuroprotective responses to oedema formation. © 2011 Medana et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
URI: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=80052869011&origin=inward
http://repository.li.mahidol.ac.th/dspace/handle/123456789/11994
ISSN: 14752875
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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