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dc.contributor.authorChristine Poulosen_US
dc.contributor.authorArthorn Riewpaiboonen_US
dc.contributor.authorJohn F. Stewarten_US
dc.contributor.authorJohn Clemensen_US
dc.contributor.authorSoyeon Guhen_US
dc.contributor.authorMagdarina Agtinien_US
dc.contributor.authorDang Duc Anhen_US
dc.contributor.authorDong Baiqingen_US
dc.contributor.authorZulfiqar Bhuttaen_US
dc.contributor.authorDipika Suren_US
dc.contributor.authorDale Whittingtonen_US
dc.contributor.otherRTI Internationalen_US
dc.contributor.otherMahidol Universityen_US
dc.contributor.otherThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hillen_US
dc.contributor.otherInternational Vaccine Institute, Seoulen_US
dc.contributor.otherBadan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesiaen_US
dc.contributor.otherNational Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology Hanoien_US
dc.contributor.otherCenters for Disease Control and Preventionen_US
dc.contributor.otherThe Aga Khan Universityen_US
dc.contributor.otherNational Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases Indiaen_US
dc.identifier.citationTropical Medicine and International Health. Vol.16, No.3 (2011), 314-323en_US
dc.description.abstractObjective To generate community-based estimates of the public (paid by the government) and private (paid by households) costs of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Hechi, China; North Jakarta, Indonesia; Kolkata, India; Karachi, Pakistan and Hue, Vietnam. Methods To measure out-of-pocke t costs of illness and lost earnings, families with culture-proven cases were surveyed 7, 14 and 90days after onset of illness. Public costs of treatment were measured at local health facilities using a micro costing (bottom-up) method. Results The costs of hospitalized cases ranged from USD 129 in Kolkata to USD 432 in North Jakarta (hospitalization rates varied from 2% in Kolkata to 40% in Hechi) and the costs of non-hospitalized cases ranged from USD 13 in Kolkata to USD 67 in Hechi. Where costs were highest (Hechi, North Jakarta and Karachi), the bulk of the costs of hospitalized cases was borne by families, comprising up to 15% of annual household income. Conclusion Although these estimates may understate true costs due to the fact that higher quality treatment may have been provided earlier-than-usual, this multi-country community-based study contributes to evidence on the public and private costs of typhoid fever in developing countries. These cost estimates were used in a cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid vaccines and will help policymakers respond to World Health Organization's updated typhoid fever immunization recommendations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.en_US
dc.rightsMahidol Universityen_US
dc.subjectImmunology and Microbiologyen_US
dc.titleCost of illness due to typhoid fever in five Asian countriesen_US
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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