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Title: Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria elimination in Cambodia: Primaquine, mass drug administration and Artemisinin resistance
Authors: Richard J. Maude
Duong Socheat
Chea Nguon
Preap Saroth
Prak Dara
Guoqiao Li
Jianping Song
Shunmay Yeung
Arjen M. Dondorp
Nicholas P. Day
Nicholas J. White
Lisa J. White
Mahidol University
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
Heartlands Hospital
National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control
Kampot Provincial Health Department
Kampong Speu Provincial Health Dept
Guangzhou University
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology;Medicine
Issue Date: 25-May-2012
Citation: PLoS ONE. Vol.7, No.5 (2012)
Abstract: Background: Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA) and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria. Method and Findings: A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity. Conclusions: The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite prevalence is a better surveillance measure for elimination programmes than numbers of symptomatic cases; combinations of interventions are most effective and sustained efforts are crucial for successful elimination. © 2012 Maude et al.
ISSN: 19326203
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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