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|Title:||SLC5 and SLC2 transporters in epithelia-cellular role and molecular mechanisms|
Max Planck Institut fur molekulare Physiologie
Johannes Kepler Universitat Linz
|Keywords:||Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology|
|Citation:||Current Topics in Membranes. Vol.70, (2012), 29-76|
|Abstract:||Members of the SLC5 and SLC2 family are prominently involved in epithelial sugar transport. SGLT1 (sodium-glucose transporter) and SGLT2, as representatives of the former, mediate sodium-dependent uptake of sugars into intestinal and renal cells. GLUT2 (glucose transporter), as representative of the latter, facilitates the sodium-independent exit of sugars from cells. SGLT has played a major role in the formulation and experimental proof for the existence of sodium cotransport systems. Based on the sequence data and biochemical and biophysical analyses, the role of extramembranous loops in sugar and inhibitor binding can be delineated. Crystal structures and homology modeling of SGLT reveal that the sugar translocation involves operation of two hydrophobic gates and intermediate exofacial and endofacial occluded states of the carrier in an alternating access model. The same basic model is proposed for GLUT1. Studies on GLUT1 have pioneered the isolation of eukaryotic transporters by biochemical methods and the development of transport kinetics and transporter models. For GLUT1, results from extensive mutagenesis, cysteine substitution and accessibility studies can be incorporated into a homology model with a barrel-like structure in which accessibility to the extracellular and intracellular medium is altered by pinching movements of some of the helices. For SGLT1 and GLUT1, the extensive hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions between sugars and binding sites of the various intramembrane helices occur and lead to different substrate specificities and inhibitor affinities of the two transporters. A complex network of regulatory steps adapts the transport activity to the needs of the body. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2011-2015|
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