Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.li.mahidol.ac.th/dspace/handle/123456789/13771
Title: Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
Authors: Daniel J. Klionsky
Fabio C. Abdalla
Hagai Abeliovich
Robert T. Abraham
Abraham Acevedo-Arozena
Khosrow Adeli
Lotta Agholme
Maria Agnello
Patrizia Agostinis
Julio A. Aguirre-Ghiso
Hyung Jun Ahn
Ouardia Ait-Mohamed
Slimane Ait-Si-Ali
Takahiko Akematsu
Shizuo Akira
Hesham M. Al-Younes
Munir A. Al-Zeer
Matthew L. Albert
Roger L. Albin
Javier Alegre-Abarrategui
Maria Francesca Aleo
Mehrdad Alirezaei
Alexandru Almasan
Maylin Almonte-Becerril
Atsuo Amano
Ravi Amaravadi
Shoba Amarnath
Amal O. Amer
Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie
Vellareddy Anantharam
David K. Ann
Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
Hiroshi Aoki
Nadezda Apostolova
Giuseppe Arancia
John P. Aris
Katsuhiko Asanuma
Nana Y.O. Asare
Hisashi Ashida
Valerie Askanas
David S. Askew
Patrick Auberger
Misuzu Baba
Steven K. Backues
Eric H. Baehrecke
Ben A. Bahr
Xue Yuan Bai
Yannick Bailly
Robert Baiocchi
Giulia Baldini
Walter Balduini
Andrea Ballabio
Bruce A. Bamber
Edward T.W. Bampton
Gábor Bánhegyi
Clinton R. Bartholomew
Diane C. Bassham
Robert C. Bast
Henri Batoko
Boon Huat Bay
Isabelle Beau
Daniel M. Béchet
Thomas J. Begley
Christian Behl
Christian Behrends
Soumeya Bekri
Bryan Bellaire
Linda J. Bendall
Luca Benetti
Laura Berliocchi
Henri Bernardi
Francesca Bernassola
Sébastien Besteiro
Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova
Xiaoning Bi
Martine Biard-Piechaczyk
Janice S. Blum
Lawrence H. Boise
Paolo Bonaldo
David L. Boone
Beat C. Bornhauser
Karina R. Bortoluci
Ioannis Bossis
Frédéric Bost
Jean Pierre Bourquin
Patricia Boya
Michaël Boyer-Guittaut
Peter V. Bozhkov
Nathan R. Brady
Claudio Brancolini
Andreas Brech
Jay E. Brenman
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Pfizer Inc.
MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit
Hospital for Sick Children University of Toronto
Linkopings universitet
Universita degli Studi di Palermo
KU Leuven
New York University
Korea Institute of Science and Technology
Universite Paris 7- Denis Diderot
York University
Osaka University
The University of Jordan
Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Institut Pasteur, Paris
VAAAHS
University of Oxford
Universita degli Studi di Brescia, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia
Scripps Research Institute
Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados
University of Pennsylvania
National Cancer Institute
Ohio State University
Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse III
Iowa State University
City of Hope National Med Center
Griffith University
Niigata University
Universitat de Valencia, Facultad de Medicina y Odontologia
Istituto Superiore Di Sanita, Rome
University of Florida College of Medicine
Juntendo University
Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Kyoto University
Keck School of Medicine of USC
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Centre Mediterraneen de Medecine Moleculaire
Universite Nice Sophia Antipolis
Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering
University of Massachusetts Medical School
University of North Carolina-Pembroke
General Hospital of People's Liberation Army
Universite de Strasbourg
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Universita degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo
TIGEM Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine
University of Toledo
University of Leicester
Semmelweis Egyetem
University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Universite Catholique de Louvain
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
Universite Paris-Sud XI
Universite d' Auvergne Clermont-FD 1
University at Albany State University of New York
Klinikum der Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitat und Fachbereich Medizin
Klinikum und Fachbereich Medizin Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt am Main
CHU Hopitaux de Rouen
The University of Sydney
Merck & Co., Inc.
Universita degli studi Magna Graecia di Catanzaro
INRA Montpellier
Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata
CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Comenius University
Western University of Health Sciences
CNRS UM1
Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis
Emory University School of Medicine
Universita degli Studi di Padova
University of Chicago
Kinderspital Zurich
Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo
University of Maryland
CSIC - Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas (CIB)
Universite de Franche-Comte
Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
Universitat Heidelberg
Universita degli Studi di Udine
Universitetet i Oslo
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
de Duve Institute
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Virginia Commonwealth University
University of Rochester Medical Center
Genentech Incorporated
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Hertie-Institut fur klinische Hirnforschung
Medical University of Vienna Institute of Cancer Research
Universite de Geneve
Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP
NYU School of Medicine
Institutu Klinicke a Experimentalni Mediciny
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
Vanderbilt Eye Institute
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Thomas Jefferson University
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
Institut Biochimie et Genetique Cellulaires, Bordeaux
Royal Veterinary College University of London
Centro Europeo di Ricerca sul Cervello, Roma
CSIC - Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra (IPBLN)
Xiangya Hospital of Central-south University
University of Idaho
University of East Anglia
Universidade de Coimbra, Centro De Neurociencias e Biologia Celular
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Case Western Reserve University
Lunds Universitet
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen
Universita degli Studi di Messina
Universita Vita-Salute San Raffaele
Institut de Neurociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Universita degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale Amedeo Avogadro
University Medical Center Utrecht
Utrecht University
IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda
Universitat Tubingen
Chonbuk National University
Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital
California Institute of Technology
University of Strathclyde
The University of Hong Kong Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine
The University of Hong Kong
National Taiwan University College of Medicine
Academia Sinica Taiwan
Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
Institute of Zoology Chinese Academy of Sciences
Nankai University
Institute of Biomedical Sciences Academia Sinica Taiwan
South China Normal University
Zhejiang University School of Medicine
Xijing Hospital
Tsinghua University
Peking University
University of Michigan Medical School
Mackay Memorial Hospital Taiwan
Purdue University
University of Louisville
Chinese University of Hong Kong
Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Yonsei University College of Medicine
Bond University
Physiopathologie du Cancer du Foie
Penn State College of Medicine
University of Tsukuba
National Yang-Ming University Taiwan
Kyung Hee University
Brigham and Women's Hospital
SungKyunKwan University, School of Medicine
Ajou University, School of Medicine
Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy
University of Cincinnati
University of Tartu
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
National Health Research Institutes Taiwan
National Defense Medical Center Taiwan
Korea University
Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana
University of Liverpool
Safar Center for Resuscitation Research
Universitat Lausanne Schweiz
Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center
Inserm
Princeton University
Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Universita degli Studi di Pavia
Johns Hopkins University
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
Universita degli Studi di Torino
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Universidad de Oviedo
Universidad de Valparaiso
University of Aberdeen
Keck Graduate Institute
CSIC-USE -Institute of Plant Biochemistry and Photosynthesis (IBVF)
University of Johannesburg
University of Iowa
Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma
INRA Centre de Clermont-Ferrand-Theix
University of Cape Town
The Institute of Cancer Research, London
Karolinska University Hospital
Universita di Pisa
University of California, San Francisco
Tufts University School of Medicine
Institut des Maladies Neurodegeneratives
University of Melbourne
Laboratorio Nazionale Consorzio Interuniversitario Biotecnologie
National University of Singapore
School of Life Sciences-LifeNet
Centre for Cancer Biology
University of Adelaide
University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center
LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans
Monash University
University of G. d'Annunzio Chieti and Pescara
Columbia University Medical Center
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
Universidad de Chile
Universidad de Alcala
Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute
Frankfurt Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
University of California, Davis
University of Kansas Medical Center
University Hospitals Case Medical Center
Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Validation et Identification de Nouvelles Cibles en Oncologie
Medical College of Georgia
Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ)
Eli Lilly and Company
Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology
Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois
Centre de Recherches BioMedicales des Cordeliers
Universite Pierre et Marie Curie
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
University of California, Irvine
Universitat de Barcelona
University of Cologne
Milton S. Hershey Medical Center
Weizmann Institute of Science Israel
Universita degli Studi di Milano
Buck Institute for Age Research
Universiteit Stellenbosch
The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine
Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre
Helsingin Yliopisto
George Mason University
Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
Fudan University
UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center
University of Maryland, Baltimore
Guangzhou University
King's College London
Kraeftens Bekaempelse
University of California, San Diego
Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1
The University of Georgia
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
University at Buffalo, State University of New York
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Debreceni Egyetem Altalanos Orvostudomanyi Kar
San Diego State University
Hunter College
IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Rockefeller University
University of Colorado at Boulder
McGill University, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital
Universitatsklinikum Heidelberg
University of Nebraska Medical Center
University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Kobenhavns Universitet
Universidad de Extremadura
Kyushu University
Kagoshima University
Jichi Medical University
Tohoku University
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH)
Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
University of Wisconsin Madison
University of Dundee
Institute of Microbiology Chinese Academy of Sciences
UT Southwestern Medical Center
Boston University
University of Illinois at Chicago
Centre dImmunologie de Marseille-Luminy
University of Kentucky
UCL Institute of Neurology
Harvard Medical School
University of Ottawa, Canada
University of Manitoba
University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine
Democritus University of Thrace
Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology
Lancaster University
Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons
Medical University of Warsaw
New York Medical College
Ege Universitesi
Universidad de Buenos Aires
CSIC-CAR-UR - Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (ICVV)
University of Nottingham
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
British Columbia Cancer Agency
Sabanci Universitesi
Agricultural Institute of Slovenia
Children's Hospital of Iowa
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute
UCSD Medical Center, Moores Cancer Center
AstraZeneca
Montana State University - Bozeman
Osaka University Faculty of Medicine
Zhejiang University
Life Technologies
Virginia Commonwealth University Health System
University of Occupational and Environmental Health
John Radcliffe Hospital
Trinity College Dublin
Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science
VA Medical Center
National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center
Moffitt Cancer Center
UT Southwestern Medical School
Duke University School of Medicine
Centre Hospitalier de L'Universite de Montreal
University of Colorado School of Medicine
University of Glasgow
Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile
Riken
German Cancer Research Center
Universitat Bonn
Sun Yat-Sen University
Harvard University
LEO Pharma AS
University of Maryland School of Medicine
University of New Mexico School of Medicine
Providence Portland Medical Center
West China Hospital of Sichuan University
Mayo Clinic Cancer Center
National Taiwan University
Universitats Klinikum Freiburg und Medizinische Fakultat
Seoul National University
Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
University of Edinburgh
Chungnam National University
University of Washington, Seattle
McGill University
University of Durham
University of Ulsan, College of Medicine
Tokyo Women's Medical University
Asahi University
Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Nagoya University School of Medicine
Yale University School of Medicine
Keio University
Turku Centre for Biotechnology
UT Medical Branch at Galveston
Medical College of Wisconsin
Luxembourg Institute of Health
Seoul National University College of Medicine
Chungbuk National University
Harbin Medical University
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Universidad de Salamanca
Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology
Universitetet i Tromso
University of Pittsburgh
University of Toronto
Universiteit van Pretoria
Eötvös Loránd University
Institut Universitaire de Pathologie, Lausanne
Korea Food Research Institute
Ita-Suomen yliopisto
National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira
National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Institute for Basic Biology
Karolinska Institutet
Gifu University School of Medicine
National Cancer Centre, Singapore
University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute
Kyushu University, Faculty of Medical Sciences
St. Jude Children Research Hospital
Tohoku University School of Medicine
Chang Gung University
University of Minnesota Cancer Center
Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology IZI
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Minufiya University
University of Groningen, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute (GBB)
Hokkaido University
Gyeongsang National University (GSNU), College of Medicine
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology
Wonkwang University
Hallym University
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Beatson Institute for Cancer Research
Rhode Island Hospital
Merck Serono, Darmstadt
Saint Boniface General Hospital Research Centre
University of Tokyo
Nagasaki University
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen
University of Arizona
Universitatsklinik Erlangen und Medizinische Fakultat
Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe
Universitat Gottingen
Juntendo University School of Medicine
National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI)
Newcastle University, United Kingdom
Hiroshima University
Universitat Wien
Massachusetts General Hospital
Centre de Génétique et de Physiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire
Universite Paris Descartes
The Babraham Institute
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation
Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences
University of Louisville Health Sciences Center
The Commonwealth Medical College
UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center
Yonsei University
Rady Children's Hospital
Centre d'Infection et d'Immunite de Lille
Division of DermatologyLaval UniversityQuebec City
University of Bristol
Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences
Cancer Research UK
Incheon National University
Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University
The Catholic University of Korea
University of Florida
Institut de Recherche sur la Sante, l'Environnement et le Travail
University of Arkansas - Fayetteville
National Cheng Kung University
Fudan University Shanghai Medical College
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Medical University of South Carolina
Rush University Medical Center
Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin
Third People's Hospital of Yongzhou
Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences Chinese Academy of Sciences
Hanshan Normal University
University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine
Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica
Medical University of Lodz
Konkuk University
College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Duke University
Soochow University
Huazhong Normal University
Texas A and M Health Science Center
Stony Brook University
National Cancer Institute at Frederick
Shu-Te University
Queens College, City University of New York
Instituto Universitario de Oncologia del Principado de Asturias
Stanford University School of Medicine
Van Andel Research Institute
Karl-Franzens-Universitat Graz
IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute
National Human Genome Research Institute
San Raffaele Institute Sulmona
Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale
Research Center Caesar
Nanjing Agricultural University
Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
University of Ottawa Heart Institute
Cambridge Institute for Medical Research
Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas
Universite de Montpellier
Universiteit Antwerpen
Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca
Osaka Prefecture University
Malaghan Institute of Medical Research
Cork Cancer Research Centre
Vanderbilt University
Dalhousie University
Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam
Yale University
Hospital Ramon y Cajal
Institute Catala Oncologia
Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz
Bernhard Nocht Institut fur Tropenmedizin Hamburg
Second Military Medical University
Shandong University
University of Namur
Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine
Universita degli Studi di Siena
Tokyo Medical University
Tokyo Medical and Dental University
FONDATION ARC POUR LA RECHERCHE SUR LE CANCER
Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron
International University of Health and Welfare
University of Iowa Healthcare
Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Universidad de Costa Rica
Saitama University
Imperial College London
Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology
Georgetown University Medical Center
IRCCS Saverio de Bellis
University Hospital Zurich Institute of Experimental Immunology
Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Inc.
The Wistar Institute
Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza
Tokai University School of Medicine
Kyoto Sangyo University
Tokyo Institute of Technology
University of South Florida, Tampa
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
New York Blood Center
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
University of Split
National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Riken Brain Science Institute
Institute of Medical Science The University of Tokyo
Jikei University School of Medicine
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona
University of Hawaii at Manoa
University of Athens
Yonsei University Wonju Campus
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
Universita della Calabria
University of Texas at San Antonio
Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore
ETH Zurich
VU University Medical Center
Retrovirus endogenes et elements retroides des eucaryotes superieurs
Tel Aviv University
Jules Stein Eye Institute
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Institut Claudius Regaud
Dynamique Des Microtubules En Physiopathologie
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
IRO-Institute for Research in Ophthalmology
University of Florida College of Dentistry
Columbia University in the City of New York
Cornell University
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
The University of British Columbia
Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt am Main
The Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Food and Drug Administration
EMD Serono Research Institute
University of South Carolina School of Medicine
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
University of Wyoming College of Health Sciences
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Hopital l'Archet
University of South Carolina
University of Silesia in Katowice
Maastricht University
Taussig Cancer Center
Universitatsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und Medizinische Fakultat
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Charles University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
Meikai University
UCL Cancer Institute
CSIC-JA-UPO - Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo (CABD)
Centro Regional de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha
Dulbecco Telethon Institute
Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine
Stanford University
Jawaharlal Nehru University
Vilniaus universitetas
Gunma University
UniversitatsSpital Zurich
University of Wyoming
Universitatsklinikum Ulm
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wien
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet HF
Durham VA Medical Center
INRA Bordeaux-Aquitaine
Drexel University College of Medicine
Korea Basic Science Institute
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Jefferson Medical College
Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy
NARO Institute of Floricultural Science
National Chung Hsing University
Taipei Medical University
McGill University, Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Research Centre
Institute of Cell Biology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Royal North Shore Hospital
Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
Universitat Bern
Consorzio Mario Negri Sud
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Hong Kong Polytechnic University
University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Mahidol University
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas
Hebei Medical University
Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram
Academy of Athens
UCL
SAIC-Frederick
Instituto Nacional de Cancer
Heinrich Heine Universitat
CASE School of Medicine
Wuhan University
University of the Ryukyus
University of York
University of Texas Medical School at Houston
Yokohama City University School of Medicine
University of Exeter
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Birmingham
Universita degli Studi dell'Insubria
Okayama University Medical School
University of Cambridge
University of Manchester
University of Southern California
University of Belgrade
UniversitatsSpital Bern
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Jozef Stefan Institute
Francis Marion University
OHSU School of Medicine
IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Universiteit Gent
KU Leuven– University Hospital Leuven
Hospital Clinic Barcelona
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona
Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences
Cardiff University
Texas A and M Institute for Biosciences and Technology
North Shore University Hospital
National Tsing Hua University
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Changzheng Hospital
Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences - NCMLS
University of Utah, School of Medicine
House Research Institute
University of Science and Technology of China
University of Sheffield
University Health Network University of Toronto
Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Xi'an Jiaotong University
University of Southampton
Wuhan Institute of Virology Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Henan University of Technology
University of Kansas Lawrence
Mayo Clinic
Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, FRA
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University
OIST Graduate University
Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center
Weis Center for Research
University of Shizuoka
INRA Centre de Recherche de Versailles-Grignon
Chosun University
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Keio University School of Medicine
Toronto General Research Institute University of Toronto
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan
University of Virginia
National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing
Leiden University Medical Center - LUMC
University of Newcastle Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Peking University Health Science Center
University of California, Berkeley
Goteborgs Universitet
Max Planck Institut fur Psychiatrie
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice
Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli
The Cancer Institute of New Jersey
Universite de Lyon
Panepistimio Kritis
Santo Tomas University
Johannes Gutenberg Universitat Mainz
University of Rzeszow
Keywords: Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2012
Citation: Autophagy. Vol.8, No.4 (2012), 445-544
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.
URI: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84862295360&origin=inward
http://repository.li.mahidol.ac.th/dspace/handle/123456789/13771
ISSN: 15548635
15548627
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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