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Title: Bacterial gene loss as a mechanism for gain of antimicrobial resistance
Authors: M. E. Török
N. Chantratita
S. J. Peacock
University of Cambridge
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Addenbrooke's Hospital
Mahidol University
Keywords: Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2012
Citation: Current Opinion in Microbiology. Vol.15, No.5 (2012), 583-587
Abstract: Acquisition of exogenous DNA by pathogenic bacteria represents the basis for much of the acquired antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. A more extreme mechanism to avoid the effect of an antibiotic is to delete the drug target, although this would be predicted to be rare since drug targets are often essential genes. Here, we review and discuss the description of a novel mechanism of resistance to the cephalosporin drug ceftazidime caused by loss of a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) in a Gram-negative bacillus (Burkholderia pseudomallei). This organism causes melioidosis across south-east Asia and northern Australia, and is usually treated with two or more weeks of ceftazidime followed by oral antibiotics for three to six months. Comparison of clinical isolates from six patients with melioidosis found initial ceftazidime-susceptible isolates and subsequent ceftazidime-resistant variants. The latter failed to grow on commonly used culture media, rendering these isolates difficult to detect in the diagnostic laboratory. Genomic analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and array based genomic hybridisation revealed a large-scale genomic deletion comprising 49 genes in the ceftazidime-resistant strains. Mutational analysis of wild-type B. pseudomallei demonstrated that ceftazidime resistance was due to deletion of a gene encoding a PBP 3 present within the region of genomic loss. This provides one explanation for ceftazidime treatment failure, and may be a frequent but undetected event in patients with melioidosis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
ISSN: 18790364
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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