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Title: Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, the nationally-recommended artemisinin combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, in southern Laos
Authors: Mayfong Mayxay
Maniphone Khanthavong
Odai Chanthongthip
Mallika Imwong
Tiengkham Pongvongsa
Bouasy Hongvanthong
Samalane Phompida
Viengxay Vanisaveth
Nicholas J. White
Paul N. Newton
Wellcome Trust-Mahosot Hospital-Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Collaboration
University of Health Sciences
University of Oxford
Centre of Malariology
Mahidol University
Savannakhet Provincial Malaria Station
Keywords: Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine
Issue Date: 12-Jun-2012
Citation: Malaria Journal. Vol.11, (2012)
Abstract: Background: The Lao Government changed the national policy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria from chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2005. Since then, no information on AL efficacy has been reported. With evidence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives in adjacent Cambodia, there has been a concern as to AL efficacy. Monitoring of AL efficacy would help the Lao Government to make decisions on appropriate malaria treatment. Methods. The efficacy of a three-day, twice daily oral artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Xepon District, Savannakhet Province, southern Laos was studied over 42days follow-up. This was part of a trial of thiamin supplementation in falciparum malaria. Results: Of 630 patients with P. falciparum enrolled in the trial of thiamin treatment, 549 (87%, 357 children 15years and 192 adults) were included in this study. The per protocol 42-day cure rates were 97% (524/541) [96% (337/352) for children and 99% (187/189) for adults, p=0.042]. By conventional intention-to-treat analysis, the 42-day cure rates adjusted for re-infection, were 97% (532/549) [96% (342/357) in children and 99% (190/192) in adults, p=0.042] . The proportion of patients who remained parasitaemic at day 1 after treatment was significantly higher in children [33% (116/356)] compared to adults [15% (28/192)] (p < 0.001) and only one adult patient had detectable parasitaemia on day 2. There were no serious adverse events. Potential side effects after treatment were reported more commonly in adults (32%) compared to children (15%) (p < 0.001). Patients with recrudescent infections were significantly younger, had longer mean time to fever clearance, and had longer median time to parasite clearance compared to those who were cured. Conclusions: The current nationally-recommended anti-malarial treatment (artemether- lumefantrine) remains highly efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria five years after introduction in Laos. Regular monitoring is required in case artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum parasites should appear. Trial registration. ISRCTN85411059. © 2012 Mayxay et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
ISSN: 14752875
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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