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|Title:||Complete deficiencies of complement C4A and C4B including 2-bp insertion in codon 1213 are genetic risk factors of systemic lupus erythematosus in Thai populations|
The Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Mahidol University
|Keywords:||Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine|
|Citation:||Journal of Autoimmunity. Vol.25, No.1 (2005), 77-84|
|Abstract:||The complement component C4 is encoded by two genes: C4A and C4B on human chromosome 6p in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Most studies have linked the deficiencies in C4 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Angio-Irish, North American, Black American, Mexican American, Australian and Japanese populations. Null alleles at either locus (C4AQ0 or C4BQ0) are relatively common in Americans occurring at the C4A and C4B loci in approximately 10% and 16% of normal individuals, respectively. In the present study, we extensively examined the possible association between homozygous C4Q0 and SLE in a large cohort of Thai populations diagnosed as SLE and further attempted to identify the genetic basis of C4Q0. One hundred and eighteen cases of SLE patients and 145 matched controls were genotyped by touchdown PCR. The results confirmed the previous studies that 5.93% (7/118) of C4 null genes: 2.54% (3/118) of C4AQ0 and 3.39% (4/118) of C4BQ0 were found in SLE patients. In contrast to other studies, we found no cases of C4 null genes in normal control (0 from 145 samples). To further investigate the genetic basis of C4 deficiency, all genomic DNAs were also analyzed for 2-bp (TC) insertion at codon 1213 in exon 29 which is a common mutation in many C4A null genes and a novel 1-bp deletion (C) at codon 522 in exon 13 that is common in most C4B null genes. Both mutation results in a flame-shift mutation and premature stop codon using sequence specific primers PCR (SSP-PCR) and direct sequencing. The results showed that there was 2-bp insertion in exon 29 of mutant C4B gene in one SLE patient carrying C4AQ0. There was no 2-bp insertion in exon 29 of both C4A and C4B genes in normal individual and the rest of SLE patients. All patients with C4AQ0 exhibited more than 5 ACR criteria including malar rash, oral ulcers, renal disorder, immunological disorder, anti-nuclear antibody, without hematological disorder. In contrast, all of C4BQ0 SLE patients showed 5 or 6 ACR criteria including hematological disorder, malar rash, oral ulcers, renal disorder, immunological disorder and anti-nuclear antibody. A patient who possesses C4AQ0 and 2-bp insertion in exon 29 of mutant C4B showed 9 ACR criteria but no discoid rash and hematological disorder. In conclusion, both C4AQ0 and C4BQ0 are the strong predisposing factors for SLE in Thais. It was supported by the absence of either C4A or C4B deletion in healthy control. We suggested that the different racial and genetic backgrounds could alter the thresholds for requirement of C4A or C4B protein levels in immune tolerance and regulation. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2001-2005|
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