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Title: Therapeutic effects of antivenom supplemented by antithrombin III in rats experimentally envenomated with Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom
Authors: Ralf Clemens
Sasithon Pukrittayakamee
Sirivan Vanijanonta
Apichart Nontprasert
Hans L. Bock
Preecha Charoenlarp
Nicholas J. White
Mahidol University
SmithKline Beecham
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
Keywords: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
Issue Date: 1-Jan-1995
Citation: Toxicon. Vol.33, No.1 (1995), 77-82
Abstract: The effects of equine antivenom and antithrombin III (AT-III) on the coagulopathy induced by Russell's viper venom (RVV, Daboia russelli siamensis) were investigated in the rat. After taking blood samples from the femoral vein for determination of simple blood clotting time and AT-III activity, all anaesthetized rats received an intramuscular injection of venom (2 μg/g). Treatment (antivenom or AT-III or both) was given intravenously through another femoral vein 30 min after venom injection. All untreated rats (n = 7) developed AT-III depletion (<70%) [mean (S.D.)] 70 (36) min, and incoagulable blood 85 (53) min after venom injection. Supplementation with AT-III (either 0.25 U/g or 0.5 U/g) had no effect on the RVV induced coagulopathy (n = 20). Treatment with antivenom alone (10 μg/g) reduced the incidence of abnormal clotting significantly (8/15, 53%) (P = 0.03). When antivenom was given in combination with AT-III (0.5 U/g), abnormal clotting was prevented in all but one animal (1/15, 7%) (P = 0.007). AT-III activity declined progressively in all rats which developed non-clotting blood. These results suggest that coagulopathy in Russell's viper envenoming is associated with activation of coagulation and consumption of AT-III. Antivenom can prevent coagulopathy, but its neutralizing activity is augmented significantly by AT-III supplementation. © 1995.
ISSN: 00410101
Appears in Collections:Scopus 1991-2000

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