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|Title:||Artemether-pyrimethamine in the treatment of pyrimethamine-resistant falciparum malaria|
Malaria Sector 4
Japan Assoc. of Tropical Medicine
|Citation:||Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. Vol.27, No.1 (1996), 19-23|
|Abstract:||In vitro susceptibility and clinical response of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum to the combination artemether-pyrimethamine were evaluated in patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Sixty patients were randomized to receive 3 oral regimens of the combination artemether-pyrimethamine as follows: Regimen-I: artemether (300mg) plus pyrimethamine (100mg) on the first day, then placebo on the two consecutive days; Regimen-II: artemether (300mg) plus pyrimethamine (100mg) on the first day, then artemether (150mg) plus pyrimethamine (50mg) on the second day, and placebo on the third day; Regimen-III: artemether (300mg) plus pyrimethamine (100mg) on the first day, then artemether (150mg) plus pyrimethamine (50mg) on the second and third days. All patients had a rapid initial response to treatments with 95% of parasitemia being cleared within the first 24 hours. PCT24hours and PCT48hours were similar among the three drug regimens (11 vs 4, 6 vs 12, and 9 vs 11 patients for a 1-day, 2-day, and 3-day combination regimen, respectively). Fever was cleared within 48 hours in all patients in either group. Transient mild nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite were found in a few patients during the first 2 days of treatment. Seven patients did not complete the 28 day follow-up period (5 vs 2 in a 1-day vs 2-day regimen), the reason for withdrawal was not associated with drug-related adverse effects. Only 53 patients were therefore qualified for the efficacy assessment. There was 15, 13 and 5 patients in a 1-day, 2-day and 3-day combination regimens, respectively, who had reappearance of the parasitemia between days 11 and 21. The cure rates of the 3 treatment groups were statistically significantly different (0, 27.8, and 75% for a 1-day, 2-day and 3-day combination regimen, respectively). Two patients developed P. vivax malaria on days 20 and 24. All of the isolates were highly resistant to pyrimethamine, with MIC of 10-5M. There is potential advantage of this combination therapy in reducing the dosage and treatment period of artemisinin derivative, which is therefore likely to improve complaince in clinical practice. The use of a 3-day combination regimen (300mg artemether plus 100mg pyrimethamine on the first day, then 150mg artemether plus 50mg pyrimethamine on the second and third days) seems to be a good alternative regimen to sulfadoxine/ pyrimethamine in areas where P. falciparum is sensitive to pyrimethamine eg in Africa.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 1991-2000|
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