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Title: The insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors in the Mekong region
Authors: Wim Van Bortel
Ho Dinh Trung
Le Khanh Thuan
Tho Sochantha
Duong Socheat
Chalao Sumrandee
Visut Baimai
Kalouna Keokenchanh
Phompida Samlane
Patricia Roelants
Leen Denis
Katrijn Verhaeghen
Valerie Obsomer
Marc Coosemans
Prins Leopold Instituut voor Tropische Geneeskunde
National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology Hanoi
National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control
Mahidol University
Parasitology and Entomology
Universite Catholique de Louvain
Universiteit Antwerpen
Keywords: Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine
Issue Date: 22-Jul-2008
Citation: Malaria Journal. Vol.7, (2008)
Abstract: Background. Knowledge on insecticide resistance in target species is a basic requirement to guide insecticide use in malaria control programmes. Malaria transmission in the Mekong region is mainly concentrated in forested areas along the country borders, so that decisions on insecticide use should ideally be made at regional level. Consequently, cross-country monitoring of insecticide resistance is indispensable to acquire comparable baseline data on insecticide resistance. Methods. A network for the monitoring of insecticide resistance, MALVECASIA, was set up in the Mekong region in order to assess the insecticide resistance status of the major malaria vectors in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. From 2003 till 2005, bioassays were performed on adult mosquitoes using the standard WHO susceptibility test with diagnostic concentrations of permethrin 0.75% and DDT 4%. Additional tests were done with pyrethroid insecticides applied by the different national malaria control programmes. Results. Anopheles dirus s.s., the main vector in forested malaria foci, was susceptible to permethrin. However, in central Vietnam, it showed possible resistance to type II pyrethroids. In the Mekong delta, Anopheles epiroticus was highly resistant to all pyrethroid insecticides tested. It was susceptible to DDT, except near Ho Chi Minh City where it showed possible DDT resistance. In Vietnam, pyrethroid susceptible and tolerant Anopheles minimus s.l. populations were found, whereas An. minimus s.l. from Cambodia, Laos and Thailand were susceptible. Only two An. minimus s.l. populations showed DDT tolerance. Anopheles vagus was found resistant to DDT and to several pyrethroids in Vietnam and Cambodia. Conclusion. This is the first large scale, cross-country survey of insecticide resistance in Anopheles species in the Mekong Region. A unique baseline data on insecticide resistance for the Mekong region is now available, which enables the follow-up of trends in susceptibility status in the region and which will serve as the basis for further resistance management. Large differences in insecticide resistance status were observed among species and countries. In Vietnam, insecticide resistance was mainly observed in low or transmission-free areas, hence an immediate change of malaria vector control strategy is not required. Though, resistance management is important because the risk of migration of mosquitoes carrying resistance genes from non-endemic to endemic areas. Moreover, trends in resistance status should be carefully monitored and the impact of existing vector control tools on resistant populations should be assessed. © 2008 Van Bortel et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
ISSN: 14752875
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2006-2010

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