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|Title:||Structure-activity relationship for chemical skin permeation enhancers: Probing the chemical microenvironment of the site of action|
|Authors:||Kevin S. Warner|
S. Kevin Li
T. Marjukka Suhonen
William I. Higuchi
University of Utah
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
|Keywords:||Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics|
|Citation:||Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol.92, No.6 (2003), 1305-1322|
|Abstract:||Studies were previously conducted in our laboratory on the influence of n-alkanols, 1-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones, N,N-dimethlyalkanamides, and 1,2-alkanediols as skin permeation enhancers on the transport of a model permeant, corticosterone (CS). The experiments were conducted with hairless mouse skin (HMS) in a side-by-side, two-chamber diffusion cell, with enhancer present in an aqueous buffer in both chambers. The purpose of the present study was to extend these studies and investigate in greater detail the hypothesis that a suitable semipolar organic phase may mimic the microenvironment of the site of enhancer action, and that the enhancer partitioning tendency into this organic phase may be used to predict the enhancer potency. CS flux enhancement along the lipoidal pathway of HMS stratum corneum was determined with the 1-alkyl-2-azacycloheptanones, 1-alkyl-2-piperidinones, 1,2-dihydroxypropyl decanoate, 1,2-dihydroxypropyl octanoate, n-alkyl-β-D-glucopyranosides, 2-(1-alkyl)-2-methyl-1,3-dioxolanes, 1,2,3-nonanetriol, and trans-hydroxyproline-N-decanamide-C-ethylamide as enhancers. Enhancement factors (E values) were calculated from the permeability coefficient and solubility data over a range of E values. Comparisons of the enhancer potencies for all studied homologous series and the carbon number of the n-alkyl group revealed a nearly semilogarithmic linear relationship with a slope of ∼0.55, which is consistent with the hydrophobic effect. Moreover, comparisons of the enhancer potencies of all the enhancers with the n-hexanol-phosphate buffered saline (PBS), n-octanol-PBS, n-decanol-PBS, and n-hexane-PBS partition coefficients showed very good correlations for the n-alkanol solvents but not for n-hexane. This result supports the interpretation that the enhancer potency is directly related to the ability of the enhancer molecule to translocate to a site of action via its free energy of transfer from the bulk aqueous phase to a semipolar microenvironment in the stratum corneum lipid lamella that is well mimicked by water-saturated n-alkanols. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2001-2005|
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