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|Title:||Declining mefloquine sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum along the Thai-Myanmar border|
Kesara Na Bangchang
Walther H. Wernsdorfer
Thailand Ministry of Public Health
Office of Disease Prevention and Control 1
Disease Control Office 11
|Citation:||Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. Vol.35, No.3 (2004), 560-565|
|Abstract:||Mefloquine sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum along the Thai-Myanmar border, both in vitro and in vivo, following different first-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients in these areas during the period 1997-2003 were studied. Standard in vitro micro tests and in vivo efficacy according to World Health Organization methodologies were performed. P. falciparum isolates along the Thai-Myanmar border with in vitro sensitivity to mefloquine have had up to a ten-fold decrease in sensitivity compared to a baseline done in 1986, conducted one year after the drug was first introduced to Thailand. The reduction in the mefloquine sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates in Tak Province developed rapidly, with the highest IC 50 of 1,254 nM in 1997. The IC 50 declined to 1,067 and 737 nM in 1999 and 2001, respectively, but there was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity. The sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates from Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, and Ranong, where the first line treatment was mefloquine 15 mg/kg single dose, continued to decline, where in 2001 the IC 50 were 1,087, 941, and 1,116 nM, respectively, in these provinces. The difference in sensitivities of P. falciparum isolates in Mae Hong Son and Ranong in 2001, compared to 1997, was statistically significant (p<0.05). Good therapeutic efficacy of the artesunate-mefloquine combination in Tak Province was observed. Adequate clinical responses (ACR) were 89.5% and 92.3% in 1997 and 2002, respectively. The efficacy of mefloquine alone in Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, and Ranong has significantly dropped. ACR in 1997 and 2001 in Mae Hong Son were 87.8% and 73.2%, respectively, in Kanchanaburi were 82% and 59.6%, respectively, and in Ranong were 96% and 31.6%, respectively.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2001-2005|
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