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|Title:||Monitoring and evaluation of a model demonstration project for the control of cervical cancer in Nakhon Phanom province, Thailand|
Thailand Ministry of Public Health
National Cancer Institute Thailand
Prince of Songkla University
Nakhon Phanom University
Nakhon Phanom Provincial Health Office
International Agency for Research on Cancer
|Keywords:||Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology;Medicine|
|Citation:||Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Vol.8, No.4 (2007), 547-556|
|Abstract:||Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second most common cancer in females in the world with about half a million new patients per year. Since the introduction by Papanicolaou of cervical smear screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has declined in many developed countries. The decrease in the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer is mainly due to the organized mass screening using Pap smear programmes. Uterine cervical cancer is the leading cancer among women in Thailand with age-standardized incidence rates of 24.7 per 100,000 in 1999. Most cases present at advanced stages with poor prognoses of survival and cure. In the present study, cervical cancer screening programme with cervical cytology was organized for Nakhon Phanom province, Thailand. The specific objectives were: 1) to evaluate the reduction in incidence and mortality from cervical cancer in the province by means of an organised low-intensity cervical cytology programme. 2) to demonstrate the different aspects of programme implementation as a potential model for nationwide implementation. The screening activities were integrated in the existing health care system. Organized screening for women in the target population (aged 35-54 years) at 5-year intervals was free of charge. Sample taking was done by trained nurses (midwives) and primary health care personnel in the local health care centers. Sample quality was under continuous controlled by the cytology laboratories and pathologists. Confirmation and treatment were integrated into the normal health care routines. The screening results of the programme, including histologically confirmed diagnosis, were registered at the National Cancer Institute using PapReg and CanReg 4 programmes. A population-based cancer registry in Nakhon Phanom province was also set up in 1997. In the period 1999-2002, 32,632 women aged 35-54 years were screened. Women with low-grade lesions returned for routine follow-up smears. High-grade preinvasive disease was further evaluated by repeating Pap smear, conization or biopsy and subsequent treatment through surgical removal or ablation. This organized low-intensity cervical cytology programme showed a considerable increase in early carcinoma in situ and CIN II - III cases and should reduce incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer in Nakhon Phanom province in the future. Screening with the Papanicolaou smear plus adequate follow-up diagnosis and therapy can achieve major reductions in both incidence and mortality rates.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2006-2010|
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