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Title: Exposure to N-nitroso compounds in a population of high liver cancer regions in Thailand: Volatile nitrosamine (VNA) levels in Thai food
Authors: E. J. Mitacek
K. D. Brunnemann
M. Suttajit
N. Martin
T. Limsila
H. Ohshima
L. S. Caplan
Stony Brook University
New York Institute of Technology
Institute For Cancer Prevention
Chiang Mai University
Mahidol University
International Agency for Research on Cancer
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
Issue Date: 1-Apr-1999
Citation: Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol.37, No.4 (1999), 297-305
Abstract: The recent case-control studies in Thailand indicate that a high incidence of liver cancer in Thailand has not been associated with common risk factors such as hepatitis B infection, aflatoxin intake and alcohol consumption. While the infestation by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) accounted for the high risk in north-east Thailand, there was no such exposure in the other regions of the country where the incidence of liver cancer is also high. Case-control studies suggest that exposure to exogenous and possibly endogenous nitrosamines in food or tobacco in betel nut and cigarettes may play a role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while OV infestation and chemical interaction of nitrosamines may also be aetiological factors in the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Over 1800 samples of fresh and preserved food were systematically collected and tested between 1988 and 1996. All the food items identified by anthropological studies to be consumed frequently in four major regions of Thailand were analysed for volatile nitrosamines using gas chromatography combined with a thermal energy analyser. Relatively high levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) were detected in fermented fish ('Plasalid'). NDMA was also detected at levels ranging from trace amounts to 66.5 μg/kg in several salted and dried fish ('Larb-pla' and 'Pla-siu'). NDMA and NPYR were frequently detected in several vegetables, particularly fermented beans ('Tau-chiau') at levels ranging between 1 and 95.1 μg/kg and 0-146 μg/kg, respectively. The possible role of nitrosamines in Thai food in the aetiology of liver cancer (HCC, CCA) is discussed.
ISSN: 02786915
Appears in Collections:Scopus 1991-2000

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