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Title: Volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the smoke of Thai cigarettes: A risk factor for lung cancer and a suspected risk factor for liver cancer in Thailand
Authors: Eugene J. Mitacek
Klaus D. Brunnemann
Dietrich Hoffmann
Thira Limsila
Maitree Suttajit
Nimit Martin
Lee S. Caplan
Stony Brook University
New York Institute of Technology
Institute For Cancer Prevention
Chiang Mai University
Mahidol University
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Keywords: Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 23-Jan-1999
Citation: Carcinogenesis. Vol.20, No.1 (1999), 133-137
Abstract: In Thailand, smoking of commercial cigarettes and of handmade cigarettes has drastically increased in recent decades. Cancer of the lung and of the upper aerodigestive tract have also increased in Thailand as they have in many other countries. It is our working hypothesis that the increase of primary cancer of the liver, especially of cholangiocarcinoma in the north-eastern provinces of Thailand is associated with the use of tobacco in men infested with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV). Bioassays have shown that volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines induce cholangiocarcinoma in laboratory animals and that the hepatocarcinogenic action of nitrosodimethylamine in hamsters is significantly increased by infestation with the liver fluke OV. The endogenous formation of nitrosamines is significantly increased by OV infestation. This report presents analytical data on the concentration of volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream smoke of nine leading brands of commercially produced Thai cigarettes which represent ~ 85% of the market share in Thailand. Observed ranges (ng/cigarette) were 8.5-31.9 for nitrosodimethylamine, 8.8-49.6 for nitrosopyrrolidine and 4.2-18.9 for nitrosodi-n-butylamine. These values are exceptionally high compared with the smoke of light and blended cigarettes from North America and Western Europe. Among the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, the range was 28-730 for nitrosonornicotine and 16-370 for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. There was a correlation between volatile and tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and tar and nicotine deliveries in the mainstream smoke. The analytical data are in line with the rate for lung cancer and support our working hypothesis that nitrosamines, and especially the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, are associated with the increased risk for primary liver cancer among those Thai people who smoke cigarettes and also carry OV infestation.
ISSN: 01433334
Appears in Collections:Scopus 1991-2000

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