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|Title:||Maternal viral load and timing of mother-to-child HIV transmission, Bangkok, Thailand|
|Authors:||Philip A. Mock|
Nancy L. Young
Marcia L. Kalish
Timothy D. Mastro
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Bangkok Children's Hospital
|Keywords:||Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine|
|Citation:||AIDS. Vol.13, No.3 (1999), 407-414|
|Abstract:||Objectives: To determine the proportion of HIV-1-infected infants infected in utero and intrapartum, the relationship between transmission risk factors and time of transmission, and the population-attributable fractions for maternal viral load. Design: Prospective cohort study of 218 formula-fed infants of HIV-1-infected untreated mothers with known infection outcome and a birth HIV-1-positive DNA PCR test result. Methods: Transmission in utero was presumed to have occurred if the birth sample (within 72 h of birth) was HIV-1-positive by PCR; intrapartum transmission was presumed if the birth sample tested negative and a later sample was HIV-1-positive. Two comparisons were carried out for selected risk factors for mother-to-child transmission: infants infected in utero versus all infants with a HIV-1-negative birth PCR test result, and infants infected intrapartum versus uninfected infants. Results: Of 49 infected infants with an HIV-1 birth PCR result, 12 (24.5%) [95% confidence interval (CI), 14-38] were presumed to have been infected in utero and 37 (75.5%) were presumed to have been infected intrapartum. The estimated absolute overall transmission rate was 22.5%; this comprised 5.5% (95% CI, 3-9) in utero transmission and 18% (95% CI, 13-24) intrapartum transmission. Intrapartum transmission accounted for 75.5% of infections. High maternal HIV-1 viral load (> median) was a strong risk factor fur both in utero [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.8 (95% CI, 1.4-38.8] and intrapartum transmission (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.9-11.2). Low birth-weight was associated with in utero transmission, whereas low maternal natural killer cell and CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentages were associated with intrapartum transmission. The population-attributable fraction for intrapartum transmission associated with viral load > 10 000 copies/ml was 69%. Conclusions: Our results provide further evidence that most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs during labor and delivery, and that risk factors may differ according to time of transmission. Interventions to reduce maternal viral load should be effective in reducing both in utero and intrapartum transmission.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 1991-2000|
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