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Title: Short-course zidovudine for perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Bangkok, Thailand: A randomised controlled trial
Authors: Nathan Shaffer
Rutt Chuachoowong
Philip A. Mock
Chaiporn Bhadrakom
Wimol Siriwasin
Nancy L. Young
Tawee Chotpitayasunondh
Sanay Chearskul
Anuvat Roongpisuthipong
Pratharn Chinayon
John Karon
Timothy D. Mastro
R. J. Simonds
HIV/AIDS Collaboration
Mahidol University
Bangkok Children's Hospital
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Keywords: Medicine
Issue Date: 6-Mar-1999
Citation: Lancet. Vol.353, No.9155 (1999), 773-780
Abstract: Background. Many developing countries have not implemented the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 076 zidovudine regimen for prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission because of its complexity and cost. We investigated the safety and efficacy of short-course oral zidovudine administered during late pregnancy and labour. Methods. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, HIV-1-infected pregnant women at two Bangkok hospitals were randomly assigned placebo or one zidovudine 300 mg tablet twice daily from 36 weeks' gestation and every 3 h from onset of labour until delivery. Mothers were given infant formula and asked not to breastfeed. The main endpoint was babies' HIV-1-infection status, tested with HIV-1-DNA PCR at birth, 2 months, and 6 months. We measured maternal plasma viral concentrations by RNA PCR. Findings. Between May, 1996, and December, 1997, 397 women were randomised; 393 gave birth to 395 live-born babies. Median duration of antenatal treatment was 25 days, and median number of doses during labour was three. 99% of women took at least 90% of scheduled antenatal doses. Adverse events were similar in the study groups. Of 392 babies with at least one PCR test, 55 tested positive: 18 in the zidovudine group and 37 in the placebo group. The estimated transmission risks were 9.4% (95% CI 5.2-13.5) on zidovudine and 18.9% (13.2-24.2) on placebo (p = 0.006; efficacy 50.1% [15.4-70.6]). Between enrolment and delivery, women in the zidovudine group had a mean decrease in viral load of 0.56 log. About 80% of the treatment effect was explained by lowered maternal viral concentrations at delivery. Interpretation. A short course of twice-daily oral zidovudine was safe and well tolerated and, in the absence of breastfeeding, can lessen the risk for mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission by half. This regimen could prevent many HIV-1 infections during late pregnancy and labour in less-developed countries unable to implement the full 076 regimen.
ISSN: 01406736
Appears in Collections:Scopus 1991-2000

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