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|Title:||Effect of immediate neonatal zidovudine on prevention of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1|
Division of Infectious Diseases
Division of Clinical Chemistry
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
|Citation:||International Journal of Infectious Diseases. Vol.4, No.3 (2000), 148-152|
|Abstract:||Objectives: To describe the effects of various short zidovudine (ZDV) prophylactic regimens on vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-I) infection, especially the effect of immediate neonatal ZDV prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: The study included children of HIV-1-infected mothers who were born at a teaching hospital in Bangkok. The ZDV prophylaxis regimens varied by time periods that included: (1) no ZDV (1991-1996); (2) antenatal oral ZDV, 250 mg given twice a day starting at 34 to 36 weeks' gestation and continued until labor (1995-1998); (3) antenatal oral ZDV plus immediate neonatal oral ZDV, 6 mg/0.6 mL/dose started within the first 2 hours after birth and continued at 6-hour intervals for 4 to 6 weeks (1997-1998); and (4) intrapartum intravenous ZDV given in addition to regimen 3 (1998-1999). Neonatal ZDV was administered within 2 hours after birth in 95% of the neonates. Results: In a cohort of 136 children born at least 9 months before the analysis date, the HIV-1 vertical infection rates were: (1) no ZDV, 11 of 48 (22.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.0-37.3); (2) late antenatal ZDV, 10 of 47 (21.3%, 95% CI = 10.7-35.7); (3) late antenatal ZDV plus immediate neonatal ZDV, 0 of 28 (0%, 95% CI = 0-12.3); (4) late antenatal, intrapartum intravenous ZDV, plus immediate neonatal ZDV, 0 of 13 (0%, 95% CI = 0-24.7). An estimated 0% (95% CI = 0-8.6) of the infants who received immediate neonatal ZDV with or without intrapartum ZDV were infected, as compared with 22.1% (95% CI = 14.2-31.8) of those who received no ZDV or only late antenatal ZDV (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study suggests high protective effect of immediate administration of neonatal ZDV. Perinatal components of antiretroviral prophylaxis provided the best results for protecting against vertical HIV-1 transmission.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 1991-2000|
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