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Title: Epidemiology and clinical aspects of rickettsioses in Thailand
Authors: Y. Suputtamongkol
C. Suttinont
K. Niwatayakul
S. Hoontrakul
R. Limpaiboon
W. Chierakul
K. Losuwanaluk
W. Saisongkork
Mahidol University
Maharaj Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital
Muang Loei Ram Hospital
Chumphon Hospital
Udonthani Hospital
Banmai Chaiyapod Hospital
Ministry Public Health Thailand
Keywords: Arts and Humanities;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2009
Citation: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol.1166, (2009), 172-179
Abstract: Scrub typhus and murine typhus are widespread in Thailand. Clinical manifestations of both diseases are nonspecific and vary widely. Acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), with or without organ dysfunction, is a major clinical presentation of these two diseases. The epidemiology and clinical manifestations including severe complications of scrub typhus and murine typhus in Thailand are summarized. Sixteen hundred and sixty-three patients with AUF were studied in six hospitals in Thailand between 2000 and 2003. Scrub typhus and murine typhus were diagnosed in 16.1% and 1.7% of them, respectively. Clinical spectrum of murine typhus was similar to scrub typhus. Hepatic dysfunction and pulmonary involvement were common complications. Multi-organ dysfunction mimicking sepsis syndrome occurred in 11.9% of patients with scrub typhus. The mortality of severe scrub typhus varied from 2.6% to 16.7%. Awareness that scrub typhus and murine typhus are prominent causes of AUF in adults in Thailand improves the probability of an accurate clinical diagnosis. Early recognition and appropriate treatment reduces morbidity and mortality. Results from recent clinical studies from Thailand indicated that rational antimicrobial therapy would be doxycycline in mild cases and a combination of either cefotaxime or ceftriaxone and doxycycline in severe cases. Azithromycin could be considered as an alternative treatment when doxycycline allergy is suspected. This would be either curative, or have no ill effect, in the majority of instances. Failure to improve or defervesce within 48 hours would indicate the need to perform a thorough re-evaluation of clinical findings and initial laboratory investigation results, as well as a need to change antibiotic. © 2009 New York Academy of Sciences.
ISSN: 17496632
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2006-2010

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