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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.li.mahidol.ac.th/dspace/handle/123456789/29241
Title: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus chloroquine to treat vivax malaria in Afghanistan: An open randomized, non-inferiority, trial
Authors: Ghulam Rahim Awab
Sasithon Pukrittayakamee
Mallika Imwong
Arjen M. Dondorp
Charles J. Woodrow
Sue Jean Lee
Nicholas Pj Day
Pratap Singhasivanon
Nicholas J. White
Faizullah Kaker
Mahidol University
Ministry of Public Health
Churchill Hospital
University of London
Keywords: Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine
Issue Date: 22-Apr-2010
Citation: Malaria Journal. Vol.9, No.1 (2010)
Abstract: Background: Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection, the parasite responsible for the majority of its malaria burden. Chloroquine resistance in P. vivax is emerging in Asia. Therapeutic responses across Afghanistan have not been evaluated in detail. Methods. Between July 2007 and February 2009, an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in patients aged three months and over with slide-confirmed P. vivax mono-infections was conducted. Consistent with current national guidelines, primaquine was not administered. Subjects were followed up daily during the acute phase of illness (days 0-3) and weekly until day 56. The primary endpoint was the overall cumulative parasitological failure rate at day 56 after the start of treatment, with the hypothesis being that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was non-inferior compared to chloroquine ( = 5% difference in proportion of failures). Results. Of 2,182 individuals with positive blood films for P. vivax, 536 were enrolled in the trial. The day 28 cure rate was 100% in both treatment groups. Parasite clearance was more rapid with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine than chloroquine. At day 56, there were more recurrent infections in the chloroquine arm (8.9%, 95% CI 6.0-13.1%) than the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine arm (2.8%, 95% CI 1.4-5.8%), a difference in cumulative recurrence rate of 6.1% (2-sided 90%CI +2.6 to +9.7%). The log-rank test comparing the survival curves confirmed the superiority of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine over chloroquine (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that a lower initial haemoglobin concentration was also independently associated with recurrence. Both regimens were well tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions. Chloroquine remains an efficacious treatment for the treatment of vivax malaria in Afghanistan. In a setting where radical therapy cannot be administered, dihydroartemisinin- piperaquine provides additional benefit in terms of post-treatment prophylaxis, reducing the incidence of recurrence from 4-8 weeks after treatment. Trial Registration. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT00682578. © 2010 Awab et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
URI: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=77951054683&origin=inward
http://repository.li.mahidol.ac.th/dspace/handle/123456789/29241
ISSN: 14752875
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2006-2010

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