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|Title:||Human monoclonal ScFv that inhibits cellular entry and metalloprotease activity of tetanus neurotoxin|
|Keywords:||Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine|
|Citation:||Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology. Vol.28, No.1 (2010), 85-93|
|Abstract:||Tetanus is a deadly disease of warm blooded animals and humans caused by an exotoxin called tetanospasmin or tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by anaerobic bacterium named Clostridium tetani. TeNT is an A-B toxin; each molecule consists of a heavy chain (HC) containing cellular receptor binding domain and a light chain (LC) with zinc metalloprotease activity. TeNT produced in the infected tissue by the bacteria grown under anaerobic condition binds to ganglioside receptors of peripheral nerve, and endocytosed. The A subunit exits from the endosome and undergoes a retrograde transport via the nerve axon to the spinal cord. This highly toxic enzyme specifically cleaves one of the nerve cell SNARE proteins, i.e., synaptobrevin, resulting in inhibition of the release of neurotransmitters (glycine and GABA) from inhibitory interneuron causing spastic paralysis, the characteristic of tetanus. Current treatment mainstay of human tetanus is by passively administering anti-tetanus toxin produced from animals immunized with adjuvanted tetanus toxoid (TT). There are several obstacles in production and use of the animal derived therapeutic antibody especially the allergic reaction and serum sickness induced by the host immune response to the foreign protein. The animal antibody, mainly IgG, blocks nerve cell entry of the TeNT but does not neutralize the TeNT protease activity per se and cannot reverse the tetanus symptoms. In this study, fully human single chain antibody fragments (HuScFv) were produced from a human antibody phage display library. TT was used as antigen in a single round phage bio-panning to select phage clones that display TT bound-HuScFv from the library. HuScFv from 4 selected huscfv-phagemid transformed E. coli clones inhibited binding of the native TeNT to retinoic acid pulsed human neuroblastoma cells when used at the molecular TeNT:HuScFv ratio of 1:100. HuScFv from one of the 4 clones also inhibited the TeNT mediated cleavage of recombinant synaptobrevin. Further investigation is needed for identification of epitope specificity of these HuScFv and HuScFv effector mechanisms towards the TeNT. Cell penetrating version of the HuScFv that inhibited the TeNT zinc metalloprotease activity should be made. The HuScFv produced in this study either singly or in their suitable combination warrant developing further to a real use in humans as a surrogate of the animal antibody for treatment of tetanus.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2006-2010|
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