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Title: The effect of needle size inducing degeneration in the rat caudal disc: Evaluation using radiograph, magnetic resonance imaging, histology, and immunohistochemistry
Authors: Gun Keorochana
Jared S. Johnson
Cyrus E. Taghavi
Jen Chung Liao
Kwang Bok Lee
Jeong Hyun Yoo
Stephanie S. Ngo
Jeffrey C. Wang
Mahidol University
University of California, Los Angeles
Chang Gung University
Chonbuk National University, School of Medicine
Keywords: Medicine
Issue Date: 1-Nov-2010
Citation: Spine Journal. Vol.10, No.11 (2010), 1014-1023
Abstract: Background context: The rat caudal disc has been increasingly used in studying of disc degeneration because of its simplicity, low cost, and efficiency. However, the reproducibility and standardization are essential to facilitate the investigations of biologic therapeutics at different stages of degeneration. Purpose: To identify the effect of different needle gauges to the degenerative response in rat caudal discs and to examine its pathogenesis by looking at the cellular and matrix changes. Study design: In vivo study of injury-induced rat caudal disc degeneration using needle puncture. Patient sample: Thirty-six Lewis rats aged 12-14 weeks. Outcome measures: The induced degenerative discs were analyzed by plain radiograph, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological examination. Proteoglycan content was assessed by alcian blue stain. Immunohistochemistry using aggrecan, collagen II, and Sox-9 was also evaluated to investigate cell differentiation and matrix changes. Methods: All rats were divided into three groups according to different needle gauges (18G, 20G, and 22G). Caudal discs were punctured percutaneously under image guidance. Radiographs and MRI were obtained at 2 weeks interval until 8 weeks. At each time point, three rats from each group were sacrificed for histological analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: Larger needle gauges, especially 18G, produced more deterioration of the disc when compared with smaller sizes, particularly with time. Significant differences were identified in almost all parameters compared between 18G and 22G at the 8-week time point. For the effect of time in the same needle size, the differences occurred between 2- or 4-week and 8-week time point in the 18G and 20G groups. The proteoglycan and aggrecan stain gradually decreased over time. Chondrogenic differentiation was identified within the degenerative disc by detecting Sox-9 positive cells and collagen II accumulation increased as degeneration progressed. Conclusions: The puncture-induced degenerative changes in rat caudal discs can imitate the human degenerative cascade as observed in plain radiograph, MRI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. We suggest that needle size affects the occurrence of progression of degeneration; thus, the large needle size was required to accelerate the deterioration. The size of needle and time point after injury should be considered when investigating the effect of therapeutic materials to retard degeneration or regenerate the intervertebral disc. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 15299430
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2006-2010

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