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Title: Synergism between mefloquine and artemisinin and its enhancement by retinol in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro
Authors: Gerwald Kerschbaumer
Gunther Wernsdorfer
Ursula Wiedermann
Kanungnit Congpuong
Jeeraphat Sirichaisinthop
Walther H. Wernsdorfer
Medizinische Universitat Wien
Mahidol University
Thailand Ministry of Public Health
Keywords: Medicine
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2010
Citation: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. Vol.122, No.SUPPL. 3 (2010), 57-60
Abstract: Following the advent of mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand in the 1990s, the combined treatment of falciparum malaria with artesunate and mefloquine was found to be highly effective in treating and curing the patients in the affected areas. Monitoring of the clinical-parasitological response and of the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum was systematically conducted in order to detect any signs of failure of this type of artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT). In earlier observations the in vitro activity of artemisinin was found to be significantly enhanced when combined with retinol. The same applies to mefloquine. In order to check whether the synergism between artemisinin and mefloquine was maintained in the presence of retinol, the pharmacodynamic interaction of the three compounds was investigated in the western border area of Thailand. Successful parallel tests with mefloquine, artemisinin, retinol, mefloquine-artemisinin 5:1 as well as mefloquine-artemisinin (5:1) + retinol low, medium and high were obtained with 43 fresh parasite isolates. The retinol concentrations in the low, medium and high formulations corresponded to the 50th, 65th and 80th percentile of the physiological mean concentrations in the blood of healthy adults. The IC50, IC90and IC99values for mefloquine alone showed a further increase over the data of 2008. In the combinations with artemisinin and retinol moderate synergism was observed at the IC50, but synergism increased strongly at the IC90and the IC99. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
ISSN: 00435325
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2006-2010

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