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Title: Prevalence and risk factors for chloroquine maculopathy and role of plasma chloroquine and desethylchloroquine concentrations in predicting chloroquine maculopathy
Authors: Praveena Chiowchanwisawakit
Surasak Nilganuwong
Varalak Srinonprasert
Rasada Boonprasert
Weerawadee Chandranipapongse
Somruedee Chatsiricharoenkul
Wanruchada Katchamart
Piyapat Pongnarin
Wimonrat Danwiriyakul
Ajchara Koolvisoot
Emvalee Arromdee
Ngamkae Ruangvaravate
Mahidol University
Keywords: Medicine
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2013
Citation: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases. Vol.16, No.1 (2013), 47-55
Abstract: Aim: To determine the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of chloroquine maculopathy (CM), and to evaluate the association of plasma chloroquine (CQ) and desethylchloroquine (DCQ) levels and CM. Methods: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had taken CQ for at least 6 months and stable CQ dosage for at least 2 months were included. CM was diagnosed by dilated ocular examination and automated visual field. Plasma CQ and DCQ levels were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Logistic regression was used to explore risk factors associated with CM. Results: One hundred and ninety-three patients were included with median CQ duration (range) of 50.2 months (6.0-269.8) and cumulative dose of 137.4 g (16.4-1226.5). The prevalence of CM was 13.5%. Factors associated with CM identified from univariate analysis were age > 60 years, and creatinine clearance with odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) of 5.79 (2.42, 13.84), and 0.98 (0.96, 1.00). In multivariate analysis, older age, usage > 5 years, and current dose from 2.5 mg/kg ideal body weight [IBW]/day were the factors significantly associated with CM with OR of 5.89 (2.38, 14.57), 2.94 (1.10, 7.83), and 3.32 (1.04, 10.60), respectively, while plasma CQ and DCQ showed no association with CM. Conclusions: The prevalence of CM was 13.5% among RA patients taking CQ for at least 6 months. Age > 60 years, duration of CQ usage > 5 years and current CQ dose ≥2.5 mg/kg IBW/day were the risk factors for CM. The plasma CQ or DCQ levels demonstrated no correlation in developing CM. © 2013 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
ISSN: 1756185X
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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