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Title: Repeated landmass reformation limits diversification in the widespread littoral zone mosquito Anopheles sundaicus sensu lato in the Indo-Oriental Region
Authors: Magdalena Zarowiecki
Yvonne Marie Linton
Rory J. Post
Michael J. Bangs
Pe Than Htun
Thaung Hlaing
Chang Moh Seng
Visut Baimai
Trung Ho Ding
Tho Sochantha
Catherine Walton
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Smithsonian Institution
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
Liverpool John Moores University
Public Health and Malaria Control Department, Papua
Department of Health Ministry of Health
Organisation Mondiale de la Sante
Mahidol University
National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology Hanoi
National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control
University of Manchester
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2014
Citation: Molecular Ecology. Vol.23, No.10 (2014), 2573-2589
Abstract: Southeast Asia harbours abundant biodiversity, hypothesized to have been generated by Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic and environmental change. Vicariance between the island of Borneo, the remaining Indonesian archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia caused by elevated sea levels during interglacial periods has been proposed to lead to diversification in the littoral zone mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Rodenwaldt) sensu lato. To test this biogeographical hypothesis, we inferred the population history and assessed gene flow of A. sundaicus s.l. sampled from 18 populations across its pan-Asian species range, using sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and the mannose phosphate isomerase (Mpi) gene. A hypothesis of ecological speciation for A. sundaicus involving divergent adaptation to brackish and freshwater larval habitats was also previously proposed, based on a deficiency of heterozygotes for Mpi allozyme alleles in sympatry. This hypothesis was not supported by Mpi sequence data, which exhibited no fixed differences between brackish and freshwater larval habitats. Mpi and CO1 supported the presence of up to eight genetically distinct population groupings. Counter to the hypothesis of three allopatric species, divergence was often no greater between Borneo, Sumatra/Java and the Southeast Asian mainland than it was between genetic groupings within these landmasses. An isolation-with-migration (IM) model indicates recurrent gene flow between the current major landmasses. Such gene flow would have been possible during glacial periods when the current landmasses merged, presenting opportunities for dispersal along expanding and contracting coastlines. Consequently, Pleistocene climatic variation has proved a homogenizing, rather than diversifying, force for A. sundaicus diversity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
ISSN: 1365294X
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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