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|Title:||Four years' monitoring of in vitro sensitivity and candidate molecular markers of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate-mefloquine combination in the Thai-Myanmar border|
|Keywords:||Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine|
|Citation:||Malaria Journal. Vol.13, No.1 (2014)|
|Abstract:||Background: The decline in efficacy of artesunate (AS) and mefloquine (MQ) is now the major concern in areas along the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders. Methods. The correlation between polymorphisms of pfatp6, pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfmrp1 genes and in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates to the artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) components AS and MQ, including the previously used first-line anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and quinine (QN) were investigated in a total of 119 P. falciparum isolates collected from patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum infection during 2006-2009. Results: Reduced in vitro parasite sensitivity to AS [median (95% CI) IC50 3.4 (3.1-3.7) nM] was found in 42% of the isolates, whereas resistance to MQ [median (95% CI) IC50 54.1 (46.8-61.4) nM] accounted for 58% of the isolates. Amplification of pfmdr1 gene was strongly associated with a decline in susceptibility of P. falciparum isolates to AS, MQ and QN. Significant difference in IC50 values of AS, MQ and QN was observed among isolates carrying one, two, three, and ≥ four gene copies [median (95% CI) AS IC50: 1.6 (1.3-1.9), 1.8 (1.1-2.5), 2.9 (2.1-3.7) and 3.1 (2.5-3.7) nM, respectively; MQ IC50: 19.2 (15.8-22.6), 37.8 (10.7-64.8), 55.3 (47.7-62.9) and 63.6 (49.2-78.0) nM, respectively; and QN IC50: 183.0 (139.9-226.4), 256.4 (83.7-249.1), 329.5 (206.6-425.5) and 420.0 (475.2-475.6) nM, respectively]. The prevalence of isolates which were resistant to QN was reduced from 21.4% during the period 2006-2007 to 6.3% during the period 2008-2009. Pfmdr1 86Y was found to be associated with increased susceptibility of the parasite to MQ and QN. Pfmdr1 1034C was associated with decreased susceptibility to QN. Pfmrp1 191Y and 1390I were associated with increased susceptibility to CQ and QN, respectively. Conclusion: High prevalence of CQ and MQ-resistant P. falciparum isolates was observed during the four-year observation period (2006-2009). AS sensitivity was declined, while QN sensitivity was improved. Pfmdr1 and pfmrp1 appear to be the key genes that modulate multidrug resistance in P. falciparum. © 2014 Phompradit et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2011-2015|
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