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Title: Shrimp serine proteinase homologues PmMasSPH-1 and -2 play a role in the activation of the prophenoloxidase system
Authors: Miti Jearaphunt
Piti Amparyup
Pakkakul Sangsuriya
Walaiporn Charoensapsri
Saengchan Senapin
Anchalee Tassanakajon
Chulalongkorn University
Thailand National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Mahidol University
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 24-Mar-2015
Citation: PLoS ONE. Vol.10, No.3 (2015)
Abstract: © 2015 Jearaphunt et al. Melanization mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system is a rapid immune response used by invertebrates against intruding pathogens. Several masquerade-like and serine proteinase homologues (SPHs) have been demonstrated to play an essential role in proPO activation in insects and crustaceans. In a previous study, we characterized the masqueradelike SPH, PmMasSPH1, in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon as a multifunctional immune protein based on its recognition and antimicrobial activity against the Gramnegative bacteria Vibrio harveyi. In the present study, we identify a novel SPH, known as PmMasSPH2, composed of an N-terminal clip domain and a C-terminal SP-like domain that share high similarity to those of other insect and crustacean SPHs.We demonstrate that gene silencing of PmMasSPH1 and PmMasSPH2 significantly reduces PO activity, resulting in a high number of V. harveyi in the hemolymph. Interestingly, knockdown of PmMasSPH1 suppressed not only its gene transcript but also other immune-related genes in the proPO system (e.g., PmPPAE2) and antimicrobial peptides (e.g., PenmonPEN3, PenmonPEN5, crustinPm1 and Crus-likePm). The PmMasSPH1 and PmMasSPH2 also show binding activity to peptidoglycan (PGN) of Gram-positive bacteria. Using a yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that PmMasSPH1 specifically interacted with the final proteinase of the proPO cascade, PmPPAE2. Furthermore, the presence of both PmMasSPH1 and PmPPAE2 enhances PGN-induced PO activity in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest the importance of PmMasSPHs in the activation of the shrimp proPO system.
ISSN: 19326203
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2011-2015

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