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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.li.mahidol.ac.th/dspace/handle/123456789/40781
Title: Single low dose primaquine (0.25mg/kg) does not cause clinically significant haemolysis in G6PD deficient subjects
Authors: Germana Bancone
Nongnud Chowwiwat
Raweewan Somsakchaicharoen
Lalita Poodpanya
Paw Khu Moo
Gornpan Gornsawun
Ladda Kajeechiwa
May Myo Thwin
Santisuk Rakthinthong
Suphak Nosten
Suradet Thinraow
Slight Naw Nyo
Clare L. Ling
Jacher Wiladphaingern
Naw Lily Kiricharoen
Kerryn A. Moore
Nicholas J. White
Francois Nosten
Mahidol University
University of Melbourne
Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2016
Citation: PLoS ONE. Vol.11, No.3 (2016)
Abstract: © 2016 Bancone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background: Primaquine is the only drug consistently effective against mature gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. The transmission blocking dose of primaquine previously recommended was 0.75mg/kg (adult dose 45mg) but its deployment was limited because of concerns over haemolytic effects in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD deficiency is an inherited X-linked enzymatic defect that affects an estimated 400 million people around the world with high frequencies (15-20%) in populations living in malarious areas. To reduce transmission in low transmission settings and facilitate elimination of P. falciparum, the World Health Organization now recommends adding a single dose of 0.25mg/kg (adult dose 15mg) to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) without G6PD testing. Direct evidence of the safety of this low dose is lacking. Adverse events and haemoglobin variations after this treatment were assessed in both G6PD normal and deficient subjects in the context of targeted malaria elimination in a malaria endemic area on the North-Western Myanmar-Thailand border where prevalence of G6PD deficiency (Mahidol variant) approximates 15%. Methods and Findings: The tolerability and safety of primaquine (single dose 0.25 mg base/kg) combined with dihydroartemisininpiperaquine (DHA-PPQ) given three times at monthly intervals was assessed in 819 subjects. Haemoglobin concentrations were estimated over the six months preceding the ACT + primaquine rounds of mass drug administration. G6PD deficiency was assessed with a phenotypic test and genotyping was performed in male subjects with deficient phenotypes and in all females. Fractional haemoglobin changes in relation to G6PD phenotype and genotype and primaquine round were assessed using linear mixedeffects models. No adverse events related to primaquine were reported during the trial. Mean fractional haemoglobin changes after each primaquine treatment in G6PD deficient subjects (-5.0%, -4.2% and -4.7%) were greater than in G6PD normal subjects (0.3%, -0.8 and -1.7%) but were clinically insignificant. Fractional drops in haemoglobin concentration larger than 25% following single dose primaquine were observed in 1.8% of the population but were asymptomatic. Conclusions: The single low dose (0.25mg/kg) of primaquine is clinically well tolerated and can be used safely without prior G6PD testing in populations with high prevalence of G6PD deficiency. The present evidence supports a broader use of low dose primaquine without G6PD testing for the treatment and elimination of falciparum malaria.
URI: https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84962050336&origin=inward
http://repository.li.mahidol.ac.th/dspace/handle/123456789/40781
ISSN: 19326203
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2016-2017

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