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Title: A randomized, double-blind, active-control trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a three day course of tafenoquine monotherapy for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria
Authors: Mark M. Fukuda
Srivicha Krudsood
Khadeeja Mohamed
Justin A. Green
Sukhuma Warrasak
Harald Noedl
Ataya Euswas
Mali Ittiverakul
Nillawan Buathong
Sabaithip Sriwichai
R. Scott Miller
Colin Ohrt
Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Thailand
Mahidol University
GlaxoSmithKline plc.
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
Medizinische Universitat Wien
Bangkok Hospital Medical Center
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Consortium for Health Action
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Nov-2017
Citation: PLoS ONE. Vol.12, No.11 (2017)
Abstract: © 2017, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. Background: Tafenoquine is an investigational 8-aminoquinoline for the prevention of Plasmodium vivax relapse. Tafenoquine has a long half-life and the potential for more convenient dosing, compared with the currently recommended 14-day primaquine regimen. Methods: This randomized, active-control, double-blind trial was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand. Seventy patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax were randomized (2:1) to tafenoquine 400 mg once daily for 3 days or 2500 mg total dose chloroquine phosphate (1500 mg chloroquine base) given over 3 days plus primaquine 15 mg daily for 14 days. Patients were followed to day 120. Results: Day 28 adequate clinical response rate in the per-protocol population was 93% (40/43) (90%CI 83–98%) with tafenoquine, and 100% (22/22) (90%CI 87–100%) with chloroquine/ primaquine. Day 120 relapse prevention was 100% (35/35) with tafenoquine (90%CI 92–100%), and 95% (19/20) (90%CI 78–100%) with chloroquine/primaquine. Mean (SD) parasite, gametocyte and fever clearance times with tafenoquine were 82.5 h (32.3), 49.1 h (33.0), and 41.1 h (31.4) versus 40.0 h (15.7), 22.7 h (16.4), and 24.7 h (17.7) with chloroquine/primaquine, respectively. Peak methemoglobin was 1.4–25.6% (median 7.4%, mean 9.1%) in the tafenoquine arm, and 0.5–5.9% (median 1.5%, mean 1.9%) in the chloroquine/ primaquine arm. There were no clinical symptoms of methemoglobinemia in any patient. Discussion: Although there was no difference in efficacy in this study, the slow rate of parasite, gametocyte and fever clearance indicates that tafenoquine should not be used as monotherapy for radical cure of P. vivax malaria. Also, monotherapy increases the potential risk of resistance developing to this long-acting agent. Clinical trials of single-dose tafenoquine 300 mg combined with standard 3-day chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapy are ongoing. Trial registration: NCT01290601.
ISSN: 19326203
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2016-2017

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