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Title: Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Authors: Sueppong Gowachirapant
Nidhi Jaiswal
Alida Melse-Boonstra
Valeria Galetti
Sara Stinca
Ian Mackenzie
Susan Thomas
Tinku Thomas
Pattanee Winichagoon
Krishnamachari Srinivasan
Michael B. Zimmermann
Mahidol University
Wageningen University and Research Centre
St. John's Research Institute
ETH Zurich
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
Keywords: Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Nov-2017
Citation: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. Vol.5, No.11 (2017), 853-863
Abstract: © 2017 Elsevier Ltd Background Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine sufficient. Methods In this randomised, placebo-controlled trial, pregnant women in Bangalore, India, and Bangkok, Thailand, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 200 μg iodine orally once a day or placebo until delivery. Randomisation was done with a computer-generated sequence and stratified by site. Co-primary outcomes were verbal and performance IQ scores on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III) and the global executive composite score from the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) in the children at age 5–6 years. The trial was double-blinded; some unmasking took place at age 2 years for an interim analysis, but participants and nearly all investigators remained masked to group assignment until age 5–6 years. Analysis was by intention to treat using mixed-effects models. This trial is registered with, number NCT00791466. Findings Between Nov 18, 2008, and March 12, 2011, 832 women entered the trial at a mean gestational age of 10·7 weeks (SD 2·7); median urinary iodine concentration was 131 μg/L (IQR 81–213). Mean compliance with supplementation was 87%, assessed by monthly tablet counts. 313 children (iodine group, n=159; placebo group, n=154) were analysed for verbal and performance IQ with WPPSI-III and 315 (iodine group, n=159; placebo group, n=156) for overall executive function with BRIEF-P. Mean WPPSI-III scores for verbal IQ were 89·5 (SD 9·8) in the iodine group and 90·2 (9·8) in the placebo group (difference −0·7, 95% CI −2·9 to 1·5; p=0·77), and for performance IQ were 97·5 (12·5) in the iodine group and 99·1 (13·4) in the placebo group (difference −1·6, −4·5 to 1·3; p=0·44). The mean BRIEF-P global executive composite score was 90·6 (26·2) in the iodine group and 91·5 (27·0) in the placebo group (difference −0·9, −6·8 to 5·0; p=0·74). The frequency of adverse events did not differ between groups during gestation or at delivery: 24 women in the iodine group and 28 in the placebo group reported adverse events (iodine group: abortion, n=20; blighted ovum, and n=2; intrauterine death, n=2; placebo group: abortion, n=22; blighted ovum, n=1; intrauterine death, n=2; early neonatal death, n=1; and neonatal death, n=2). Interpretation Daily iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women had no effect on child neurodevelopment at age 5–6 years. Funding Swiss National Science Foundation, Nestlé Foundation, Wageningen University and Research, and ETH Zurich.
ISSN: 22138595
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2016-2017

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