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Title: Associations between nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, obstructive sleep apnea severity and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes
Authors: Sirimon Reutrakul
Nantaporn Siwasaranond
Hataikarn Nimitphong
Sunee Saetung
Naricha Chirakalwasan
La or Chailurkit
Kriangsuk Srijaruskul
Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
Ammarin Thakkinstian
Mahidol University
Chulalongkorn University
King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Chulalongkorn University
Keywords: Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 16-Mar-2017
Citation: Chronobiology International. Vol.34, No.3 (2017), 382-392
Abstract: © 2017, Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. © 2017 Sirimon Reutrakul, Nantaporn Siwasaranond, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Sunee Saetung, Naricha Chirakalwasan, La-or Chailurkit, Kriangsuk Srijaruskul, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul, Ammarin Thakkinstian. Reduced nocturnal secretion of melatonin, a pineal hormone under circadian control, and obstructive sleep apnea have been both identified as risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether they interact to impact glycemic control in patients with existing type 2 diabetes is not known. Therefore, this study explores the relationships between obstructive sleep apnea, melatonin and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. As diabetic retinopathy may affect melatonin secretion, we also explore the relationship between retinopathy, melatonin and glycemic control. Fifty-six non-shift workers with type 2 diabetes, who were not using beta-blockers, participated. Most recent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the results of ophthalmologic examinations were obtained from medical records. Obstructive sleep apnea was diagnosed using an ambulatory device. Sleep duration and fragmentation were recorded by 7-day wrist actigraphy. The urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio, an indicator of nocturnal melatonin secretion, was measured in an overnight urine sample. Mediation analyses were applied to explore whether low nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio could be a causal link between increasing obstructive sleep apnea severity [as measured by an Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI)] and poorer glycemic control, and between the presence of retinopathy and glycemic control. AHI and HbA1c were log-scale (ln) transformed. Obstructive sleep apnea was found in 76.8%, and 25.5% had diabetic retinopathy. The median (interquartile range) of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio was 12.3 (6.0, 20.1) ng/mg. Higher lnHbA1c significantly correlated with lower 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio (p = 0.04) but was not directly associated with OSA severity. More severe obstructive sleep apnea (lnAHI, p = 0.01), longer diabetes duration (p = 0.02), retinopathy (p = 0.01) and insulin use (p = 0.03) correlated with lower urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio, while habitual sleep duration and fragmentation did not. A mediation analysis revealed that lnAHI negatively correlated with urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio (coefficient = −2.413, p = 0.03), and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine negatively associated with lnHbA1c (coefficient = −0.005, p = 0.02), after adjusting for covariates. Mediation analysis indicated that the effect of lnAHI on lnHbA1c was indirectly mediated by urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio (B = 0.013, 95% CI: 0.0006, 0.0505). In addition, having retinopathy was significantly associated with reduced nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin/creatinine ratio, and an increase in HbA1c by 1.013% of its original value (B = −0.013, 95% CI: −0.038, −0.005). In conclusion, the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea as well as the presence of diabetic retinopathy were associated with lower nocturnal melatonin secretion, with an indirect adverse effect on glycemic control. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether melatonin supplementation may be beneficial in type 2 diabetes patients with obstructive sleep apnea.
ISSN: 15256073
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2016-2017

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