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Title: Energy balance and obesity: what are the main drivers?
Authors: Isabelle Romieu
Laure Dossus
Simón Barquera
Hervé M. Blottière
Paul W. Franks
Marc Gunter
Nahla Hwalla
Stephen D. Hursting
Michael Leitzmann
Barrie Margetts
Chizuru Nishida
Nancy Potischman
Jacob Seidell
Magdalena Stepien
Youfa Wang
Klaas Westerterp
Pattanee Winichagoon
Martin Wiseman
Walter C. Willett
International Agency for Research on Cancer
Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica
Lunds Universitet
American University of Beirut
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Universität Regensburg
Southampton General Hospital
Organisation Mondiale de la Santé
National Cancer Institute
University of Amsterdam
University at Buffalo, State University of New York
Maastricht University
Mahidol University
World Cancer Research Fund International
Harvard School of Public Health
Keywords: Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2017
Citation: Cancer Causes and Control. Vol.28, No.3 (2017), 247-258
Abstract: © 2017, The Author(s). Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. Methods: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Results: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake. Dietary patterns consistent with a traditional Mediterranean diet and other measures of diet quality can contribute to long-term weight control. Limiting consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has a particularly important role in weight control. Genetic factors alone cannot explain the global epidemic of obesity. However, genetic, epigenetic factors and the microbiota could influence individual responses to diet and physical activity. Conclusion: Energy intake that exceeds energy expenditure is the main driver of weight gain. The quality of the diet may exert its effect on energy balance through complex hormonal and neurological pathways that influence satiety and possibly through other mechanisms. The food environment, marketing of unhealthy foods and urbanization, and reduction in sedentary behaviors and physical activity play important roles. Most of the evidence comes from High Income Countries and more research is needed in LMICs.
ISSN: 15737225
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2016-2017

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