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Title: Primates in peril: The significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation
Authors: Alejandro Estrada
Paul A. Garber
Russell A. Mittermeier
Serge Wich
Sidney Gouveia
Ricardo Dobrovolski
K. A.I. Nekaris
Vincent Nijman
Anthony B. Rylands
Fiona Maisels
Elizabeth A. Williamson
Julio Bicca-Marques
Agustin Fuentes
Leandro Jerusalinsky
Steig Johnson
Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo
Leonardo Oliveira
Christoph Schwitzer
Christian Roos
Susan M. Cheyne
Maria Cecilia Martins Kierulff
Brigitte Raharivololona
Mauricio Talebi
Jonah Ratsimbazafy
Jatna Supriatna
Ramesh Boonratana
Made Wedana
Arif Setiawan
Bristol Zoological Society Ltd
Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservacao da Biodiversidade
University of Antananarivo
Universitas Indonesia
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Federal University of Espirito Santo
Liverpool John Moores University
Universidade Federal de Goias
University of Stirling
University of Notre Dame
Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul
Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo
Oxford Brookes University
Universidade Federal da Bahia
Mahidol University
Deutsches Primatenzentrum
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Universidade Federal de Sergipe
University of Calgary
Wildlife Conservation Society
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
The Aspinall Foundation-Indonesia Program
Borneo Nature Foundation
Global Wildlife Conservation
Groupe d'Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP)
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology;Neuroscience
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2018
Citation: PeerJ. Vol.2018, No.6 (2018)
Abstract: © 2018 Estrada et al. Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worstcase- scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public awareness, and actively engaging with international organizations, multinational businesses and consumer nations to reduce unsustainable demands on the environment. Finally, the four primate range countries need to ensure that integrated, sustainable land-use planning for economic development includes the maintenance of biodiversity and intact, functional natural ecosystems.
ISSN: 21678359
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2018

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