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|Title:||Compound A attenuates toll-like receptor 4-mediated paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer and melanoma through suppression of IL-8|
Pa thai Yenchitsomanus
Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
|Keywords:||Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology;Medicine|
|Citation:||BMC Cancer. Vol.18, No.1 (2018)|
|Abstract:||© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Paclitaxel (PTX) is a potent anti-cancer drug commonly used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer (BCA) and melanoma. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) promotes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with cancer chemoresistance. This study aims to explore the effect of TLR4 in PTX resistance in triple-negative BCA and advanced melanoma and the effect of compound A (CpdA) to attenuate this resistance. Methods: BCA and melanoma cell lines were checked for the response to PTX by cytotoxic assay. The response to PTX of TLR4-transient knockdown cells by siRNA transfection was evaluated compared to the control cells. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, and anti-apoptotic protein, XIAP were measured by real-time PCR whereas the secreted IL-8 was quantitated by ELISA in TLR4-transient knockdown cancer cells with or without CpdA treatment. The apoptotic cells after adding PTX alone or in combination with CpdA were detected by caspase-3/7 assay. Results: PTX could markedly induce TLR4 expression in both MDA-MB-231 BCA and MDA-MB-435 melanoma cell lines having a basal level of TLR4 whereas no significant induction in TLR4-transient knockdown cells occurred. The siTLR4-treated BCA cells revealed more dead cells after PTX treatment than that of mock control cells. IL-6, IL-8 and XIAP showed increased expressions in PTX-treated cells and this over-production effect was inhibited in TLR4-transient knockdown cells. Apoptotic cells were detected higher when PTX and CpdA were combined than PTX treatment alone. Isobologram exhibited the synergistic effect of CpdA and PTX. CpdA could significantly decrease expressions of IL-6, XIAP and IL-8, as well as excreted IL-8 levels together with reduced cancer viability after PTX treatment. Conclusions: The acquired TLR4-mediated PTX resistance in BCA and melanoma is explained partly by the paracrine effect of IL-6 and IL-8 released into the tumor microenvironment and over-production of anti-apoptotic protein, XIAP, in BCA cells and importantly CpdA could reduce this effect and sensitize PTX-induced apoptosis in a synergistic manner. In conclusion, the possible impact of TLR4-dependent signaling pathway in PTX resistance in BCA and melanoma is proposed and using PTX in combination with CpdA may attenuate TLR4-mediated PTX resistance in the treatment of the patients.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2018|
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