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|Title:||Secondhand smoke point-source exposures assessed by particulate matter at two popular public beaches in Thailand|
Stephen Lorin Hamann
Insight Analysis Group
Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology
Tobacco Control Research and Knowledge Management Center
|Citation:||Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom). Vol.40, No.3 (2018), 527-532|
|Abstract:||© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. Background Throughout Asia, smoking is commonplace at crowded public beaches. Evidence has clearly shown the dangers of secondhand smoke (SHS) indoors, but no naturalistic studies have determined levels of SHS in outdoor air. Methods We measured SHS exposure at two public beaches in Thailand where families lounge in beach chairs under beach umbrellas. Researchers unobtrusively collected PM2.5 in close proximity to smokers by placing instruments downwind from smokers. We collected 88 samples of second-by-second measurements over 10-min periods. The density of people, smokers and children in each sampling area was also recorded. Results At the two beaches, mean levels were 260 and 504 μg/m3; peak levels reaching up to 716 and 1335 μg/m3. Five of the 88 samples were below the outdoor standard for Thailand of 50 μg/m3. Density counts in sampled zones were up to 4 smokers and 15 children under 12 years of age. Findings show high beach exposures suggesting regulatory protections, especially for children whose exposures can produce multiple health consequences. Conclusions Action should be taken to prohibit smoking on Thai beaches as in other outdoor settings because peak levels of PM2.5 almost always exceeded the outdoor standard in Thailand and pose a danger to health.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2018|
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