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Title: Analysis of Spounaviruses as a Case Study for the Overdue Reclassification of Tailed Phages
Authors: Jakub Barylski
François Enault
Bas E. Dutilh
Margo Bp Schuller
Robert A. Edwards
Annika Gillis
Jochen Klumpp
Petar Knezevic
Mart Krupovic
Jens H. Kuhn
Rob Lavigne
Hanna M. Oksanen
Matthew B. Sullivan
Ho Bin Jang
Peter Simmonds
Pakorn Aiewsakun
Johannes Wittmann
Igor Tolstoy
J. Rodney Brister
Andrew M. Kropinski
Evelien M. Adriaenssens
Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH
University of Novi Sad
Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences - NCMLS
ETH Zürich
University of Liverpool
San Diego State University
Quadram Institute Bioscience
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
University of Guelph
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Mahidol University
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Utrecht University
Ohio State University
Helsingin Yliopisto
Institut Pasteur, Paris
National Library of Medicine
Université Catholique de Louvain
Laboratory of Gene Technology
Keywords: Agricultural and Biological Sciences;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2020
Citation: Systematic biology. Vol.69, No.1 (2020), 110-123
Abstract: © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. Tailed bacteriophages are the most abundant and diverse viruses in the world, with genome sizes ranging from 10 kbp to over 500 kbp. Yet, due to historical reasons, all this diversity is confined to a single virus order-Caudovirales, composed of just four families: Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, and the newly created Ackermannviridae family. In recent years, this morphology-based classification scheme has started to crumble under the constant flood of phage sequences, revealing that tailed phages are even more genetically diverse than once thought. This prompted us, the Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to consider overall reorganization of phage taxonomy. In this study, we used a wide range of complementary methods-including comparative genomics, core genome analysis, and marker gene phylogenetics-to show that the group of Bacillus phage SPO1-related viruses previously classified into the Spounavirinae subfamily, is clearly distinct from other members of the family Myoviridae and its diversity deserves the rank of an autonomous family. Thus, we removed this group from the Myoviridae family and created the family Herelleviridae-a new taxon of the same rank. In the process of the taxon evaluation, we explored the feasibility of different demarcation criteria and critically evaluated the usefulness of our methods for phage classification. The convergence of results, drawing a consistent and comprehensive picture of a new family with associated subfamilies, regardless of method, demonstrates that the tools applied here are particularly useful in phage taxonomy. We are convinced that creation of this novel family is a crucial milestone toward much-needed reclassification in the Caudovirales order.
ISSN: 1076836X
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2020

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