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|Title:||Factors inhibiting intestinal calcium absorption: hormones and luminal factors that prevent excessive calcium uptake|
Academy of Science
|Keywords:||Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology|
|Citation:||Journal of Physiological Sciences. Vol.69, No.5 (2019), 683-696|
|Abstract:||© 2019, The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature. Besides the two canonical calciotropic hormones, namely parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3], there are several other endocrine and paracrine factors, such as prolactin, estrogen, and insulin-like growth factor that have been known to directly stimulate intestinal calcium absorption. Generally, to maintain an optimal plasma calcium level, these positive regulators enhance calcium absorption, which is indirectly counterbalanced by a long-loop negative feedback mechanism, i.e., through calcium-sensing receptor in the parathyroid chief cells. However, several lines of recent evidence have revealed the presence of calcium absorption inhibitors present in the intestinal lumen and extracellular fluid in close vicinity to enterocytes, which could also directly compromise calcium absorption. For example, luminal iron, circulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, and stanniocalcin can decrease calcium absorption, thereby preventing excessive calcium uptake under certain conditions. Interestingly, the intestinal epithelial cells themselves could lower their rate of calcium uptake after exposure to high luminal calcium concentration, suggesting a presence of an ultra-short negative feedback loop independent of systemic hormones. The existence of neural regulation is also plausible but this requires more supporting evidence. In the present review, we elaborate on the physiological significance of these negative feedback regulators of calcium absorption, and provide evidence to show how our body can efficiently restrict a flood of calcium influx in order to maintain calcium homeostasis.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2019|
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