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Title: A clinical and epidemiological survey of the largest dengue outbreak in Southern Taiwan in 2015
Authors: Wen Hung Wang
Chih Yen Lin
Ko Chang
Aspiro Nayim Urbina
Wanchai Assavalapsakul
Arunee Thitithanyanont
Po Liang Lu
Yen Hsu Chen
Sheng Fan Wang
Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital
Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital
Chulalongkorn University
Mahidol University
Kaohsiung Medical University
Keywords: Medicine
Issue Date: 1-Nov-2019
Citation: International Journal of Infectious Diseases. Vol.88, (2019), 88-99
Abstract: © 2019 The Author(s) Objectives: This study examined the epidemiological, clinical, and immunological characteristics of the 2015 dengue outbreak in Taiwan. Methods: Clinical data were collected from dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients. A phylogenetic tree was used to analyze the source of the outbreak strain. Paired plasma samples from DF/DHF patients were used for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) assay and cytokine multiplex biometric immunoassay to validate the immunological mechanism. Results: This outbreak mainly occurred in two of the southern cities of Taiwan: Tainan (n = 22 777; 52%) and Kaohsiung (n = 19 784; 45%). A high DHF death rate was noted (34.6%). The case (DHF) and control (DF) study indicated that older age (>60 years), type II diabetes, and hypertension were risk factors correlated with the development of DHF (p < 0.0001). The phylogenetic tree results suggested that the outbreak-associated strain was dengue virus serotype 2 and cosmopolitan genotype, forming a stable cluster with the isolates from Thailand and Indonesia (bootstrap value of 99%). Cytokine analyses demonstrated that levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-4, IL-13, IL-1β, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in DHF patients compared to DF patients (p < 0.001). The ADE assay showed that diluted plasma containing preexisting dengue antibodies from DHF patients significantly enhanced dengue infection (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest that older age, type II diabetes, hypertension, immunological cytokine dysregulation, and preexisting dengue antibodies inducing ADE infection are correlated with dengue severity. This study also indicates that the largest dengue outbreak in Taiwan might have been a result of imported DF from dengue epidemic regions.
ISSN: 18783511
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2019

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