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|Title:||Plasmodium vivax HAP2/GCS1 gene exhibits limited genetic diversity among parasite isolates from the Greater Mekong Subregion|
Myat Thu Soe
Myat Phone Kyaw
Shanghai Oriental Hospital
Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Morsani College of Medicine
China Medical University Shenyang
Myanmar Health Network Organization
|Keywords:||Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine|
|Citation:||Parasites and Vectors. Vol.13, No.1 (2020)|
|Abstract:||© 2020 The Author(s). Background: Antigens expressed in sexual stages of the malaria parasites are targets of transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). HAP2/GCS1, a TBV candidate, is critical for fertilization in Plasmodium. Here, the genetic diversity of PvHAP2 was studied in Plasmodium vivax parasite populations from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Methods: Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates were collected in clinics from the China-Myanmar border region (135 samples), western Thailand (41 samples) and western Myanmar (51 samples). Near full-length Pvhap2 (nucleotides 13-2574) was amplified and sequenced from these isolates. Molecular evolution studies were conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity, selection and population differentiation. Results: Sequencing of the pvhap2 gene for a total of 227 samples from the three P. vivax populations revealed limited genetic diversity of this gene in the GMS (π= 0.00036 ± 0.00003), with the highest πvalue observed in Myanmar (0.00053 ± 0.00009). Y133S was the dominant mutation in the China-Myanmar border (99.26%), Myanmar (100%) and Thailand (95.12%). Results of all neutrality tests were negative for all the three populations, suggesting the possible action of purifying selection. Codon-based tests identified specific codons which are under purifying or positive selections. Wright's fixation index showed low to moderate genetic differentiation of P. vivax populations in the GMS, with F ST ranging from 0.04077 to 0.24833, whereas high levels of genetic differentiation were detected between the China-Myanmar border and Iran populations (F ST = 0.60266), and between Thailand and Iran populations (F ST = 0.44161). A total of 20 haplotypes were identified, with H2 being the abundant haplotype in China-Myanmar border, Myanmar and Thailand populations. Epitope mapping prediction of Pvhap2 antigen showed that high-score B-cell epitopes are located in the S307-G324, L429-P453 and V623-D637 regions. The E317K and D637N mutations located within S307-G324 and V623-D637 epitopes slightly reduced the predicted score for potential epitopes. Conclusions: The present study showed a very low level of genetic diversity of pvhap2 gene among P. vivax populations in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The relative conservation of pvhap2 supports further evaluation of a Pvhap2-based TBV.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2020|
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