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Title: Significant Efficacy of a Single Low Dose of Primaquine Compared to Stand-Alone Artemisinin Combination Therapy in Reducing Gametocyte Carriage in Cambodian Patients with Uncomplicated Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Malaria
Authors: Amélie Vantaux
Saorin Kim
Eakpor Piv
Sophy Chy
Laura Berne
Nimol Khim
Dysoley Lek
Sovannaroth Siv
Mavuto Mukaka
Walter R. Taylor
Didier Ménard
Institut Pasteur du Cambodge
Mahidol University
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
National Center for Parasitology
National Institute of Public Health
Keywords: Medicine;Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
Issue Date: 21-May-2020
Citation: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. Vol.64, No.6 (2020)
Abstract: Copyright © 2020 Vantaux et al. Since 2012, a single low dose of primaquine (SLDPQ; 0.25 mg/kg of body weight) with artemisinin-based combination therapies has been recommended as the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria to interrupt its transmission, especially in low-transmission settings of multidrug resistance, including artemisinin resistance. Policy makers in Cambodia have been reluctant to implement this recommendation due to primaquine safety concerns and a lack of data on its efficacy. In this randomized controlled trial, 109 Cambodians with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria received dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) alone or combined with SLDPQ on the first treatment day. The transmission-blocking efficacy of SLDPQ was evaluated on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28, and recrudescence by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) (gametocyte prevalence) and membrane feeding assays with Anopheles minimus mosquitoes (gametocyte infectivity). Without the influence of recrudescent infections, DP-SLDPQ reduced gametocyte carriage 3-fold compared to that achieved with DP. Of 48 patients tested on day 0, only 3 patients were infectious to mosquitoes (∼6%). Posttreatment, three patients were infectious on day 14 (3.5%, 1/29) and on the 1st and 7th days of recrudescence (8.3%, 1/12 for each); this overall low infectivity precluded our ability to assess its transmission-blocking efficacy. Our study confirms the effective gametocyte clearance of SLDPQ when combined with DP in multidrug-resistant P. falciparum infections and the negative impact of recrudescent infections due to poor DP efficacy. Artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ) has replaced DP, and ASMQ-SLDPQ has been deployed to treat all patients with symptomatic P. falciparum infections to further support the elimination of multidrug-resistant P. falciparum in Cambodia. (This study has been registered at under identifier NCT02434952.).
ISSN: 10986596
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2020

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