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|Title:||Adipocytokine dysregulation, abnormal glucose metabolism, and lipodystrophy in HIV-infected adolescents receiving protease inhibitors|
Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
|Keywords:||Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology;Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine|
|Citation:||Cytokine. Vol.136, (2020)|
|Abstract:||© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Background: Lipodystrophy is common in HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitors (PIs), stavudine, and zidovudine. Adipocytokines may be altered in lipodystrophy. We evaluated risk factors, adipocytokine levels, insulin resistance, and lipid profiles in HIV-infected adolescents with different lipodystrophy types. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 80 perinatally HIV-infected adolescents receiving PI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy for ≥ 6 months. Patients underwent oral glucose tolerance tests and measurements of high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, resistin, insulin, and lipids. They were classified into 3 groups based on the clinical findings: no lipodystrophy, isolated lipoatrophy, and any lipohypertrophy (isolated lipohypertrophy or combined type). Results: Of the 80 patients (median age, 16.7 years), 18 (22.5%) had isolated lipoatrophy, while 8 (10%) had any lipohypertrophy (four with isolated lipohypertrophy, and four with the combined type). In a multivariate analysis, longer exposure to stavudine (OR: 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.06; p = 0.005) and indinavir (OR: 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.06; p = 0.012) were associated with lipoatrophy, while longer exposure to didanosine (OR: 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.08; p = 0.017) and indinavir (OR: 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00–1.21; p = 0.045) were associated with any lipohypertrophy. Leptin levels were highest in the any-lipohypertrophy group and lowest in the isolated-lipoatrophy group (p = 0.013). HMW adiponectin levels were significantly lowest in the any-lipohypertrophy group and highest in the no-lipodystrophy group (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the levels of resistin among the three groups (p = 0.234). The prevalence of insulin resistance (p = 0.002) and prediabetes/diabetes (p < 0.001) were significantly highest in the any-lipohypertrophy group. Patients with lipoatrophy and those without lipodystrophy had comparable degrees of insulin resistance (p = 0.292). In multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and waist-height ratio, HMW adiponectin levels were associated with Matsuda index (β = 0.5; p = 0.003) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (β = 40.1; p = 0.010) and almost significantly associated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.054). Leptin and resistin levels were not associated with HOMA-IR, Matsuda index, or QUICKI (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: Abnormal glucose metabolism and dysregulation of adipocytokines were common in the HIV-infected adolescents with lipohypertrophy and the combined type. Preventive screening for cardiovascular diseases caused by metabolic alterations should be routinely performed.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 2020|
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