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Title: Adipocytokine dysregulation, abnormal glucose metabolism, and lipodystrophy in HIV-infected adolescents receiving protease inhibitors
Authors: Jeerunda Santiprabhob
Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
Puttichart Khantee
Alan Maleesatharn
Benjaluck Phonrat
Wanatpreeya Phongsamart
Keswadee Lapphra
Orasri Wittawatmongkol
Supattra Rungmaitree
Surapong Tanchaweng
Sirinoot Maturapat
Watcharee Lermankul
Rungsunn Tungtrongchitr
Mahidol University
Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
Keywords: Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology;Immunology and Microbiology;Medicine
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2020
Citation: Cytokine. Vol.136, (2020)
Abstract: © 2020 Elsevier Ltd Background: Lipodystrophy is common in HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitors (PIs), stavudine, and zidovudine. Adipocytokines may be altered in lipodystrophy. We evaluated risk factors, adipocytokine levels, insulin resistance, and lipid profiles in HIV-infected adolescents with different lipodystrophy types. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 80 perinatally HIV-infected adolescents receiving PI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy for ≥ 6 months. Patients underwent oral glucose tolerance tests and measurements of high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, resistin, insulin, and lipids. They were classified into 3 groups based on the clinical findings: no lipodystrophy, isolated lipoatrophy, and any lipohypertrophy (isolated lipohypertrophy or combined type). Results: Of the 80 patients (median age, 16.7 years), 18 (22.5%) had isolated lipoatrophy, while 8 (10%) had any lipohypertrophy (four with isolated lipohypertrophy, and four with the combined type). In a multivariate analysis, longer exposure to stavudine (OR: 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.06; p = 0.005) and indinavir (OR: 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01–1.06; p = 0.012) were associated with lipoatrophy, while longer exposure to didanosine (OR: 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.08; p = 0.017) and indinavir (OR: 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00–1.21; p = 0.045) were associated with any lipohypertrophy. Leptin levels were highest in the any-lipohypertrophy group and lowest in the isolated-lipoatrophy group (p = 0.013). HMW adiponectin levels were significantly lowest in the any-lipohypertrophy group and highest in the no-lipodystrophy group (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the levels of resistin among the three groups (p = 0.234). The prevalence of insulin resistance (p = 0.002) and prediabetes/diabetes (p < 0.001) were significantly highest in the any-lipohypertrophy group. Patients with lipoatrophy and those without lipodystrophy had comparable degrees of insulin resistance (p = 0.292). In multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and waist-height ratio, HMW adiponectin levels were associated with Matsuda index (β = 0.5; p = 0.003) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (β = 40.1; p = 0.010) and almost significantly associated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.054). Leptin and resistin levels were not associated with HOMA-IR, Matsuda index, or QUICKI (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: Abnormal glucose metabolism and dysregulation of adipocytokines were common in the HIV-infected adolescents with lipohypertrophy and the combined type. Preventive screening for cardiovascular diseases caused by metabolic alterations should be routinely performed.
ISSN: 10960023
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2020

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