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Title: Spatio-temporal patterns of malaria infection in Bhutan: a country embarking on malaria elimination
Authors: Wangdi, Kinley
Jaranit Kaewkungwal
จรณิต แก้วกังวาล
Pratap Singhasivanon
ประตาป สิงหศิวานนท์
Tassanee Silawan
Saranath Lawpoolsri
สารนาถ ล้อพูลศรี
White, Nicholas J.
Mahidol University. Faculty of Tropical Medicine. Department of Tropical Hygiene.
Wangdi, Kinley
Keywords: Malaria, falciparum;Malaria, Vivax;Risk Factors;Open Access article
Issue Date: 16-Apr-2011
Citation: Wangdi K, Kaewkungwal J, Singhasivanon P, Silawan T, Lawpoolsri S, White NJ. Spatio-temporal patterns of malaria infection in Bhutan: a country embarking on malaria elimination. Malar J. 2011 Apr 16;10:89.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: At the verge of elimination of malaria in Bhutan, this study was carried out to analyse the trend of malaria in the endemic districts of Bhutan and to identify malaria clusters at the sub-districts. The findings would aid in implementing the control activities. Poisson regression was performed to study the trend of malaria incidences at district level from 1994 to 2008. Spatial Empirical Bayesian smoothing was deployed to identify clusters of malaria at the sub-district level from 2004 to 2008. RESULTS: Trend of the overall districts and most of the endemic districts have decreased except Pemagatshel, which has an increase in the trend. Spatial cluster-outlier analysis showed that malaria clusters were mostly concentrated in the central and eastern Bhutan in three districts of Dagana, Samdrup Jongkhar and Sarpang. The disease clusters were reported throughout the year. Clusters extended to the non-transmission areas in the eastern Bhutan. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant decrease in the trend of malaria with the elimination at the sight. The decrease in the trend can be attributed to the success of the control and preventive measures. In order to realize the target of elimination of malaria, the control measure needs to be prioritized in these high-risk clusters of malaria.
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
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