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dc.contributor.authorBenedikt Ringbecken_US
dc.contributor.authorDaniel Buryen_US
dc.contributor.authorInae Leeen_US
dc.contributor.authorGowoon Leeen_US
dc.contributor.authorRaid Alakeelen_US
dc.contributor.authorMay Alrasheden_US
dc.contributor.authorRamadhan Tosepuen_US
dc.contributor.authorErwin Azizi Jayadiprajaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKraichat Tantrakarnapaen_US
dc.contributor.authorWissanupong Kliengchuayen_US
dc.contributor.authorThomas Brüningen_US
dc.contributor.authorKyungho Choien_US
dc.contributor.authorHolger M. Kochen_US
dc.contributor.otherFaculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol Universityen_US
dc.contributor.otherUniversitas Halu Oleoen_US
dc.contributor.otherCollege of Applied Medical Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.otherSeoul National Universityen_US
dc.contributor.otherKing Saud Universityen_US
dc.contributor.otherRuhr-Universitat Bochumen_US
dc.contributor.otherMandala Waluya Universityen_US
dc.identifier.citationEnvironmental science & technology. Vol.56, No.14 (2022), 10229-10238en_US
dc.description.abstractNonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor and environmental contaminant. Yet, data on individual body burdens and potential health risks in humans, especially among children, are scarce. We analyzed two specific urinary NP metabolites, hydroxy-NP (OH-NP) and oxo-NP. In contrast to parent NP, OH-NP has a much higher urinary excretion fraction (Fue), and both are insusceptible to external contamination. We investigated spot urine samples from school children of Thailand (n = 104), Indonesia (n = 89), and Saudi Arabia (n = 108) and could quantify OH-NP in 100% of Indonesian and Saudi children (median concentrations: 8.12 and 8.57 μg/L) and in 76% of Thai children (1.07 μg/L). Median oxo-NP concentrations were 0.95, 1.10, and <0.25 μg/L, respectively, in line with its lower Fue. Median daily NP intakes (DIs), back-calculated from urinary OH-NP concentrations, were significantly higher in Indonesia and Saudi Arabia [0.47 and 0.36 μg/(kg bw·d), respectively] than in Thailand [0.06 μg/(kg bw·d)]. Maximum DIs were close to the preliminary tolerable DI of 5 μg/(kg bw·d) from the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. Dominant sources of exposure or relevant exposure pathways could not be readily identified by questionnaire analyses and also potentially varied by region. The novel biomarkers provide long-needed support to the quantitative exposure and risk assessment of NP.en_US
dc.rightsMahidol Universityen_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental Scienceen_US
dc.titleBiomarker-Determined Nonylphenol Exposure and Associated Risks in Children of Thailand, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabiaen_US
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2022

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