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Title: Urinary Concentrations of Major Phthalate and Alternative Plasticizer Metabolites in Children of Thailand, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabia, and Associated Risks
Authors: Inae Lee
Claudia Pälmke
Benedikt Ringbeck
Yunchul Ihn
Alexandra Gotthardt
Gowoon Lee
Raid Alakeel
May Alrashed
Ramadhan Tosepu
Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja
Kraichat Tantrakarnapa
Wissanupong Kliengchuay
Younglim Kho
Holger M. Koch
Kyungho Choi
Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University
Universitas Halu Oleo
Eulji University
College of Applied Medical Sciences
Seoul National University
King Saud University
Ruhr-Universitat Bochum
Mandala Waluya University
Keywords: Chemistry;Environmental Science
Issue Date: 21-Dec-2021
Citation: Environmental Science and Technology. Vol.55, No.24 (2021), 16526-16537
Abstract: Phthalates are widely used in consumer products and are well-known for adverse endocrine outcomes. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), one of the most extensively used phthalates, has been rapidly substituted with alternative plasticizers in many consumer products. The aim of this study was to assess urinary phthalate and alternative plasticizer exposure and associated risks in children of three Asian countries with different geographical, climate, and cultural characteristics. Children were recruited from elementary schools of Saudi Arabia (n = 109), Thailand (n = 104), and Indonesia (n = 89) in 2017–2018, and their urine samples were collected. Metabolites of major phthalates and alternative plasticizers were measured in the urine samples by HPLC-MS/MS. Urinary metabolite levels differed substantially between the three countries. Metabolite levels of diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) were the highest in Saudi children: Median urinary concentrations of oxo-MiNP, OH-MiDP, 5cx-MEPTP, and OH-MINCH were 8.3, 8.4, 128.0, and 2.9 ng/mL, respectively. Urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations were the highest in the Indonesian children. The hazard index (HI) derived for the plasticizers with antiandrogenicity based reference doses (RfDAA) was >1 in 86%, 80%, and 49% of the Saudi, Indonesian, and Thai children, respectively. DEHP was identified as a common major risk driver for the children of all three countries, followed by DnBP and DiBP depending on the country. Among alternative plasticizers, urinary DEHTP metabolites were detected at levels comparable to those of DEHP metabolites or higher among the Saudi children, and about 4% of the Saudi children exceeded the health based human biomonitoring (HBM)-I value. Priority plasticizers that were identified among the children of three countries warrant refined exposure assessment for source identification and relevant exposure reduction measures.
ISSN: 15205851
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2021

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