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Title: Ultrahigh-energy photons up to 1.4 petaelectronvolts from 12 γ-ray Galactic sources
Authors: Zhen Cao
F. A. Aharonian
Q. An
L. X. Bai
Y. X. Bai
Y. W. Bao
D. Bastieri
X. J. Bi
Y. J. Bi
H. Cai
J. T. Cai
Zhe Cao
J. Chang
J. F. Chang
X. C. Chang
B. M. Chen
J. Chen
L. Chen
Liang Chen
Long Chen
M. J. Chen
M. L. Chen
Q. H. Chen
S. H. Chen
S. Z. Chen
T. L. Chen
X. L. Chen
Y. Chen
N. Cheng
Y. D. Cheng
S. W. Cui
X. H. Cui
Y. D. Cui
B. Z. Dai
H. L. Dai
Z. G. Dai
D. della Volpe
B. D′Ettorre Piazzoli
X. J. Dong
J. H. Fan
Y. Z. Fan
Z. X. Fan
J. Fang
K. Fang
C. F. Feng
L. Feng
S. H. Feng
Y. L. Feng
B. Gao
C. D. Gao
Q. Gao
W. Gao
M. M. Ge
L. S. Geng
G. H. Gong
Q. B. Gou
M. H. Gu
J. G. Guo
X. L. Guo
Y. Q. Guo
Y. Y. Guo
Y. A. Han
H. H. He
H. N. He
J. C. He
S. L. He
X. B. He
Y. He
M. Heller
Y. K. Hor
C. Hou
X. Hou
H. B. Hu
S. Hu
S. C. Hu
X. J. Hu
D. H. Huang
Q. L. Huang
W. H. Huang
X. T. Huang
Z. C. Huang
F. Ji
X. L. Ji
H. Y. Jia
K. Jiang
Z. J. Jiang
C. Jin
D. Kuleshov
K. Levochkin
B. B. Li
Cong Li
Cheng Li
F. Li
H. B. Li
H. C. Li
H. Y. Li
J. Li
K. Li
State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection & Electronics
Nanjing University
Shanghai Astronomical Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences
Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Shandong University
Wuhan University
Yunnan University
Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou University
Tsinghua University
Sun Yat-Sen University
University of Science and Technology of China
Zhengzhou University
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
Sichuan University
National Astronomical Observatories Chinese Academy of Sciences
Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik
Southwest Jiaotong University
Purple Mountain Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences
Université de Genève
Hebei Normal University
Tibet University
TIANFU Cosmic Ray Research Center
Keywords: Multidisciplinary
Issue Date: 3-Jun-2021
Citation: Nature. Vol.594, No.7861 (2021), 33-36
Abstract: The extension of the cosmic-ray spectrum beyond 1 petaelectronvolt (PeV; 1015 electronvolts) indicates the existence of the so-called PeVatrons—cosmic-ray factories that accelerate particles to PeV energies. We need to locate and identify such objects to find the origin of Galactic cosmic rays1. The principal signature of both electron and proton PeVatrons is ultrahigh-energy (exceeding 100 TeV) γ radiation. Evidence of the presence of a proton PeVatron has been found in the Galactic Centre, according to the detection of a hard-spectrum radiation extending to 0.04 PeV (ref. 2). Although γ-rays with energies slightly higher than 0.1 PeV have been reported from a few objects in the Galactic plane3–6, unbiased identification and in-depth exploration of PeVatrons requires detection of γ-rays with energies well above 0.1 PeV. Here we report the detection of more than 530 photons at energies above 100 teraelectronvolts and up to 1.4 PeV from 12 ultrahigh-energy γ-ray sources with a statistical significance greater than seven standard deviations. Despite having several potential counterparts in their proximity, including pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants and star-forming regions, the PeVatrons responsible for the ultrahigh-energy γ-rays have not yet been firmly localized and identified (except for the Crab Nebula), leaving open the origin of these extreme accelerators.
ISSN: 14764687
Appears in Collections:Scopus 2021

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