- PublicationPlasmodium falciparum in continuous culture: a new medium for the in vitro test for sulfadoxine sensitivity(1982-12-01) C. R. Brockelman; P. Tan-Ariya; Mahidol UniversityThe sulfadoxine sensitivity of two strains of Plasmodium falciparum from Thailand, FCM2 and FCM5, was assessed using two types of culture medium. Waymouth formula and RPMI 1640. Growth of the parasite was completely inhibited by 0.5 mmol of sulfadoxine per litre of Waymouth formula, whereas parasite growth in RPMI was not affected at this concentration. The apparent difference in drug sensitivity was shown to be caused by competition between 4-aminobenzoic acid and sulfadoxine. This hypothesis was further confirmed by the extent to which [14C]-sulfadoxine was incorporated into the infected erythrocyte.
- PublicationEffects of physico-chemical factors on the infection of hamsters by metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini(1982-12-01) M. Kruatrachue; Y. P. Chitramvong; E. S. Upatham; S. Vichasri; V. Viyanant; Mahidol University
- PublicationAcute and subacute toxicity of piperine in mice, rats and hamsters(1983-01-01) Pawinee Piyachaturawat; Thirayudh Glinsukon; Chaivat Toskulkao; Mahidol UniversityPiperine is acutely toxic to mice, rats and hamsters. The LD50values for a single i.V., i.p., s.c., i.g. and i.m. administration of piperine to adult male mice were 15.1, 43, 200, 330 and 400 mg/kg body wt, respectively. The i.p. LD50value was increased to 60 mg/kg body wt in adult female and 132 mg/kg body wt in weanling male mice. In adult female rats, the i.p. LD50value was 33.5 mg/kg body wt whereas the i.g. LD50value was increased to 514 mg/kg body wt. Most animals given a lethal dose died of respiratory paralysis within 3-17 min. In subacute toxicity studies, the rats died within 1-3 days after treatment. Histopathologic changes included severe hemorrhagic necrosis and edema in gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder and adrenal glands. Death of these animals may be attributable to multiple dysfunctions in their organs. © 1983.
- PublicationAplastic anemia following topical administration of ophthalmic chloramphenicol: report of a case and review of the literature(1985-12-01) S. Issaragrisil; A. Piankijagum; Mahidol University
- PublicationThe use of ambiphilic dermatological cream and radiation dermatitis in radiation therapy: A clinical study at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok(1981-12-01) P. Tepmongkol; S. Chuthasri; T. Rodprasert; P. Rattanapol; W. Maneenil; Mahidol University
- PublicationTransfer rate of transplacental immunity to tetanus from non-immunized and immunized mothers(1984-12-01) V. Sangpetchsong; S. Vichaikummart; A. Vichitnant; A. Podhipak; Mahidol University
- PublicationDiphtheritic septicaemia and probable endocarditis: A case report and review of the literature(1985-11-01) S. Sirinavin; P. Suthas-Na-Aynthaya; Mahidol UniversityCorynebacterium diphtheriae usually produces an infection limited to the respiratory tract and the organisms rarely invade the blood stream. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who, 2 months after an unsuccessful repair of a ventricular septal defect, developed septicaemia with nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae. The organism appeared resistant to penicillin in vitro and failed to respond to a course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to which it was susceptible in the laboratory. A cure was finally achieved using cephalothin and gentamicin, followed by an additional course of ampicillin and amoxicillin. Twelve previously recorded cases of diphtheritic sepsis and endocarditis are reviewed. © 1985 Springer-Verlag.
- PublicationAlterations in capillary permeability in rhesus monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi infection(1985-12-01) S. Areekul; Mahidol UniversityThe transcapillary escape rate and capillary permeability to albumin were studied in 3 rhesus monkeys throughout the whole course of P. knowlesi infection. The transcapillary escape rates started to increase the first week after infection and were significantly higher than the control values during infection. Plasma volume was found to be increased while plasma albumin concentration decreased which resulted in increased intravascular mass, outflux and clearance of albumin from the intravascular to the extravascular compartments. Increased A(s)/(Δ)X and P(s) during malarial infection indicated thet the increased capillary permeability was due to increased capillary surface area and the increased endothelial permeability. As there was no relationship between increased plasma volume or intravascular mass of albumin and A(s)/(Δ)X or P(s), the increased capillary permeability in these infected monkeys could not be explained by the stretching pore phenomena. As these parameters show a close relationship to the parasitemia, malarial parasites may play a role in causing increased capillary permeability.
- PublicationLong-Range Vocal Interactions Between Groups of Gibbons(Hylobates Lar)(1985-01-01) Patricia M. Raemaekers; Jeremy J. Raemaekers; Mahidol University;We report on long-range duet interactions among twelve wild groups of lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Thailand. Statistical analysis demonstrates that groups were more likely to respond with an answering duet to a duet sung by a neighbouring group than to one sung by a non-neighbouring group in the population. A distinctive pattern of response among neighbours was to wait until a neighbouring group had finished its duet before immediately answering with a duet, resulting in avoidance of overlap between the two duets. Non-neighbours did not exhibit this pattern. The effect is shown to be due solely to neighbour status and not to the degree of mutual audibility of the duets. There was no evidence that, when duets overlapped, the first group to sing modified the length of its duet in response to the second duet, whether given by a neighbour or by a non-neighbour. In general, among those groups which responded to one another’s duets, there were no identifiable leaders and followers: the order of duetting groups was random. We discuss why neighbours interact more by duet than do non-neighbours, and consider what may be the functions of avoiding overlap of duets. © 1985, Brill. All rights reserved.
- PublicationEffect of oral contraceptive agents on thiamine status(1985-01-01) S. Egoramaiphol; P. Migasena; V. Supawan; Mahidol UniversityThis study aimed to determine the effect of oral contraceptives (OCs) on thiamine status in 112 women aged 19-37 years. Subjects were divided into 2 groups by socioeconomic level (low and upper) and matched on the basis of social class to non-OC using controls. The duration of OC use in both experimental groups exceeded 6 months. Determinations of urinary thiamine excretion/gm creatinine were made. None of the study participants had thiamine deficiency. However, 15.2% of subjects in the lower socioeconomic OC group compared to 10.5% of women in the lower socioeconomic non-OC users group and 5.9% of subjects in the upper socioeconomic OC group compared to none of those in the upper socioeconomic non-OC users group had thiamine excretion values considered low (33-96 mcg/g). These findings tend to support the observation that OCs influence vitamin metabolism.