Scopus 2022


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 4576
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    Early Orthodontic Treatment in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients
    (2022-01-01) Satravaha S.; Mahidol University
    Etiology of Cleft lip/cleft palate (CLP) is multifactorial. All cases are unique; the problems are both skeletal and dental and in three dimensions. Therefore, the treatment is more complicated than in the non-CLP cases. An interdisciplinary team composes of gynecologist, pediatrician, nurse, dentist, orthodontist, oral-maxillofacial surgeon, plastic surgeon, ENT doctor, audiologist, otolaryngologist, speech therapist, psychiatrist, social worker, and patient’s family, play important role in giving CLP care and treatment. Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) will indicate how the team works. Orthodontists can start dentofacial orthopedic and orthodontic treatment in CLP patients during active growth period. To treat early and if successfully will be advantageous as major surgeries such as orthognathic surgery, distraction osteogenesis can likely be avoided. These major surgeries certainly cause much pain to the patients and cost a lot of money. The author suggests the use of Class III Activator of Thomas Rakosi in the initial stage of the treatment in combination with the use of removable and/or fixed appliances in later stage.
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    Clinical Cases in Early Orthodontic Treatment: An Atlas of When, How and Why to Treat, Second Edition
    (2022-01-01) Harfin J.; Mahidol University
    This 2nd Edition includes new, updated chapters that deal with important issues and were written by orthodontists known worldwide. Dr Dr Bernd Lapatki presents an outstanding chapter about Early treatment of Class II Div. 2 and Coverbite, that provides a step-by-step description on how to treat these malocclusions using different alternatives. In addition to this topic, Dr Amit Bhardwaj shares the following question, is early Class II treatment worth the effort? Dr Somchai Satravaha added a new chapter about the benefits of early treatment in cleft lip palate patients and long-term controls, where she discusses all the benefits. Digital technology is here to stay forever. Dr Bryce Lee explains how this technology can help us to achieve a better diagnosis and treatment plan. Dr Julia Harfin add new chapters including relevant topics as mandibular incisor agenesis, impacted central incisors and, how to avoid long term relapse in early orthodontic treatment. She also updates other chapters. The most important controversies are discussed in detail and which will allow doctors to expand their knowledge in order to achieve better orthodontic treatment results. New topics such as orthodontic treatment in patients with hemophilia and diabetes are also discussed by Dr Eduardo Rey and Olga Ramos. The book, which is the result of many years of clinical practice, includes numerous clinical photographs that clearly exemplify how to diagnose and to treat all these patients. It is written by the most experienced team of doctors in the field and will be a valuable asset for all who specialize in odonto pediatrics and orthopedic-orthodontic treatments.
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    Early Treatment of Class III Malocclusions
    (2022-01-01) Satravaha S.; Mahidol University
    Class III malocclusions are one of the most difficult malocclusions to be treated. Anyhow, early Class III treatment can be done successfully when proper diagnosis and proper treatment plan are carefully carried out. The treatments are done following the concept of treating at the right place, at the right time with the right appliances. The purposes of early treatment can be causative treatment for dentoalveolar Class III malocclusion. In skeletal Class III malocclusions, growth modification can be done with awareness of limitation in severe cases where orthognathic surgeries are required in later stage. There have been controversies in early treatment of Class III malocclusions, especially whether growth can be modified and if the results will remain stable. There are natural growth and induced growth which cannot be measured separately. The author believes that the treatment outcomes are most crucial for the decision-making of whether to treat early or not. If the treatment outcomes can reduce severity of malocclusions and are satisfactory to both patients and orthodontists, then the interception is worth doing. The author recommends the use of Class III activator of Thomas Rakosi which has shown good treatment outcomes and long-term stability of skeletal changes, for growth modification in skeletal Class III cases and concluded that Class III activator may be a viable mode for initial stage of Class III treatment in conjunction with fixed or removable therapy.
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    Factors Affecting Online Learning for Undergraduate Students in Medical Records Major, Mahidol University
    (2022-09-01) Chongthawonsatid S.; Mahidol University
    An efficient online teaching and learning system will influence the learning outcomes of students based on a variety of elements, such as the teacher, the student, the equipment, the technology, etc. This study's aims were to investigate the knowledge and understanding of lessons learned, teaching satisfaction, factors impacting online learning, challenges and suggestions for improving online teaching and learning management, and satisfaction with teaching. All the students enrolled in online courses of the Bachelor of Science Program in Medical Record during the first semester of the 2021 academic year were surveyed. The sample consisted of 108 participants who completed an online questionnaire (Google Form) and a focus group interview with representations of students from all courses (2 individuals each year, for a total of 8 individuals). The results indicated that the overall knowledge and comprehension of online learning lessons for all subjects averaged a 6.62 score (10 score), with the highest level of satisfaction being associated with online teach-ing. Statistics Multiple regression analysis revealed that both the students' and teachers' levels of preparedness increased over time. This resulted in an increase in lesson comprehension that was statistically significant at the 0.05 level. The student readiness variables and the teacher's readiness for teaching and learning were capa-ble of predicting the lessons' knowledge and comprehension. Student readiness (Beta = 0.485) and instructor readiness (Beta = 0.330) were highly predictive variables, together predicting 46.7 percent of the variance. The strategies for the development of online teaching and learning management systems should encourage teachers to be prepared for online teaching and learning. The use of Google Classroom in con-junction with the Webex program will assist in preparing teachers to use non-boring teaching techniques and modern technology to develop self-learning materials through E-learning or other knowledge sources such as Mux SPOC or MOOC, due to the fact that there are a variety of teaching styles and the ability to create content that can be applied to real-world situations. Teachers should promote connection or communication with their students.
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    Risks of Daily Living Activities on Related Disability
    (2022-09-01) Putra A.N.; Mahidol University
    Indonesian lost 6 days productive time in average because the disability of daily activities, that must be dealt with seriously because the effect of this problem is the declining quality of life of a person and will also cause a burden for country. This research is expected to be the key to understand and overcome the problems of disability in daily activities. The research used cross sectional design with a secondary data based of Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 5. The analysis in this study was logistic regression with samples aged >40 years who participated in data collection conducted by RAND with a total of 8185 respondents. Almost all variables examined in this study were statistically significant with disabilities, there were age (p = 0.000, OR = 2.996, 95%CI = 2.726 – 3.294), gender (p = 0.000, OR = 1.858, 95%CI = 1.693 – 2.039), marital status (p = 0.000, OR = 2.211, 95%CI = 1.997 – 2.448), employment status (p = 0.000, OR = 2.540, 95%CI = 2.321 – 2.780), arthritis status (p = 0.000, OR = 1.687, 95%CI = 1.482 – 1.919) and obesity (p = 0.000, OR = 1.345, 95%CI = 1.177 – 1.538). Only variable educational level that is not significant with disability (p=0,198). The target of disability management is pri-oritized at an older age by providing health education and assis-tance so that they can withstand the threat of daily disability and lead to an improvement in their quality of life.
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    ‘Working relationships’ across difference - a realist review of community engagement with malaria research
    (2022-01-01) Vincent R.; Mahidol University
    Background: Community engagement (CE) is increasingly accepted as a critical aspect of health research, because of its potential to make research more ethical, relevant and well implemented. While CE activities linked to health research have proliferated in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs), and are increasingly described in published literature, there is a lack of conceptual clarity around how engagement is understood to ‘work’, and the aims and purposes of engagement are varied and often not made explicit. Ultimately, the evidence base for engagement remains underdeveloped. Methods: To develop explanations for how and why CE with health research contributes to the pattern of outcomes observed in published literature, we conducted a realist review of CE with malaria research – a theory driven approach to evidence synthesis. Results: We found that community engagement relies on the development of provisional ‘working relationships’ across differences, primarily of wealth, power and culture. These relationships are rooted in interactions that are experienced as relatively responsive and respectful, and that bring tangible research related benefits. Contextual factors affecting development of working relationships include the facilitating influence of research organisation commitment to and resources for engagement, and constraining factors linked to the prevailing ‘dominant health research paradigm context’, such as: differences of wealth and power between research centres and local populations and health systems; histories of colonialism and vertical health interventions; and external funding and control of health research. Conclusions: The development of working relationships contributes to greater acceptance and participation in research by local stakeholders, who are particularly interested in research related access to health care and other benefits. At the same time, such relationships may involve an accommodation of some ethically problematic characteristics of the dominant health research paradigm, and thereby reproduce this paradigm rather than challenge it with a different logic of collaborative partnership.
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    Recognising the deterioration of patients in acute care wards: a qualitative study
    (2022-01-01) Beane A.; Mahidol University
    Background: Infrastructure, equipment and staff constraints are often cited as barriers to the recognition and rescue of deteriorating patients in resource-limited settings. The impact of health-system organisation, decision-making and organisational culture on recognition of deterioration is however poorly understood. This study explores how health care providers recognise deterioration of patients in acute care in Sri Lanka. Methods: In-depth interviews exploring decision making and care processes related to recognition of deterioration, were conducted with a purposive sample of 23 health care workers recruited from ten wards at a district hospital in Sri Lanka. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and coded thematically, line-by-line, using a general inductive approach. Results: A legacy of initial assessment on admission and inimical organisational culture undermined recognition of deteriorating patients in hospital. Informal triaging at the time of ward admission resulted in patients presenting with red-flag diagnoses and vital sign derangement requiring resuscitation being categorised as "bad". The legacy of this categorisation was a series of decision-making biases anchored in the initial assessment, which remained with the patient throughout their stay. Management for patients categorised as “bad” was prioritised by healthcare workers coupled with a sense of fatalism regarding adverse outcomes. Health care workers were reluctant to deviate from the original plan of care despite changes in patient condition (continuation bias). Organisational culture - vertical hierarchy, siloed working and a reluctance to accept responsibility- resulted in omissions which undermined recognition of deterioration. Fear of blame was a barrier to learning from adverse events. Conclusions: The legacy of admission assessment and hospital organisational culture undermined recognition of deterioration. Opportunities for improving recognition of deterioration in this setting may include establishing formal triage and medical emergency teams to facilitate timely recognition and escalation.
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    All-Step-in-One Test Kit for Paraquat Detection in Water and Vegetable Samples
    (2022-03-01) Sangsum C.; Mahidol University
    This work presents the first development of an all-steps-in-one test kit for the determination of paraquat in natural water, and vegetable and agricultural samples. A handheld photometer incorporated with a magnetic stirrer was used to complete the steps of extraction, mixing, and detection. Paraquat produces a blue free radical ion via a reduction with sodium dithionite in alkaline conditions. Sodium dithionite powder was investigated for the enhancement of reagent stability duration, which was added directly into sample solution that showed insignificant difference in sensitivity as compared with that of the solution format of sodium dithionite. The developed test kit showed good performance with the linear calibration of 0.5 to 10 mg L−1 with a high coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.9947). The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ = 3SD of intercept per slope) carried out from the method using the handheld photometer was 0.50 mg L−1. The limit of detection (LOD) by naked eye was 0.30 mg L−1. The recovery study was acceptable in the range of 101–115%. Intraday (n = 3) and interday (n = 3) precision was less than 1%. On the basis of the significance test at the 95% confidence interval, quantitative results of the developed test kit agreed well with those from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating an online extraction for vegetables incorporated into a test kit, applicable for on-site analysis. Single-point calibration based on the Beer–Lambert law also demonstrated the measurement of paraquat. In testing with a nominal standard solution of 5.00 mg L−1 paraquat, the reading concentration was 5.09 ± 0.03 mg L−1 paraquat (n = 20) with a K value of 0.0967 (close to the slope of multipoint calibration). This research is a direct benefit to agricultural products and the health of a population for the analysis of pesticides and herbicides.
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    Mathematical Modeling: Global Stability Analysis of Super Spreading Transmission of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Disease
    (2022-07-01) Sungchasit R.; Mahidol University
    In this paper, a model for the transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a constant human population in which there exist super spreading infected individuals (who infect many people during a single encounter) is considered. It has been observed in the epidemiological data for the diseases caused by this virus that there are cases where some individuals are super-spreaders of the virus. We formulate a simply SEIr Is R (susceptible–exposed–regular infected–super-spreading infected–recovered) mathematical model to describe the dynamics of the transmission of this disease. The proposed model is analyzed using the standard stability method by using Routh-Hurwitz criteria. We obtain the basic reproductive number (R0) using the next generation method. We establish that when R0 < 1, the disease-free state is locally asymptotically stable and the disease endemic state is unstable. The reverse is true when R0 > 1, the disease endemic state becomes the locally asymptotically stable state and the disease-free state becomes unstable. It is also established that the two equilibrium states are globally asymptotically stable. The numerical simulations show how the dynamics of the disease change as values of the parameters in the SEIr Is R are varied.
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    Histopathological and Clinical Features of Methotrexate-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders and Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders
    (2022-09-01) Ngamdamrongkiat P.; Mahidol University
    Objective: To study histopathological and clinical features of methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (MTX-LPD) and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). Material and Methods: A retrospective study on 30 cases of MTX-LPD and 2 cases of PTLD from 2006 to 2021. Results: By histopathology, the MTX-LPD group had 21 cases of lymphoma (MTX-Lymphoma) and 9 cases of reactive changes (MTX-Reactive). The PTLD group included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and polymorphic PTLD (1 case each). The distinctive findings in MTX-Lymphoma and PTLD were association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (8/12 cases, 66.7%) and CD30 positivity (13/18 cases, 72.2%). The MTX-LPD group had median MTX dosage of 10 mg/week, median MTX cumulative dosage of 2,613.75 mg, and median duration of MTX usage of 2,186 days. The 14 MTX-LPD and PTLD patients has median duration to response after the varied interventions of 47 days and the time to the first complete remission (CR) of 126 days. The MTX-Reactive patients had a significantly higher absolute lymphocyte count, younger median age, fewer B symptoms, higher rate of single site involvement, less extranodal involvement, shorter duration to response, less time to enter CR, and higher CR rate than the MTXLymphoma patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Histopathology in MTX-LPD and PTLD patients can vary from reactive changes to lymphoma. EBV study and CD30 immunostaining help identify MTX-LPD and PTLD. History of MTX usage and other causes of immunodeficiency should be considered before diagnosing lymphoma. MTX discontinuation or reduction of immunosuppressant dosage are recommended before administrating combined chemotherapeutic agents in unresponsive cases.