Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino)

dc.contributor.authorSumontha Nookabkaewen_US
dc.contributor.authorNuchanart Rangkadiloken_US
dc.contributor.authorNorratouch Prachoomen_US
dc.contributor.authorJutamaad Satayavivaden_US
dc.contributor.otherChulabhorn Research Instituteen_US
dc.contributor.otherChulabhorn Graduate Instituteen_US
dc.contributor.otherSouth Carolina Commission on Higher Educationen_US
dc.contributor.otherAsian Institute of Technology Thailanden_US
dc.description.abstract© 2016 American Chemical Society. Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.en_US
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol.64, No.16 (2016), 3119-3126en_US
dc.rightsMahidol Universityen_US
dc.subjectAgricultural and Biological Sciencesen_US
dc.titleConcentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino)en_US